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    General Anesthetics Commonly Used for Laboratory Animals
    Xiao LU, Lingzhi YU, Sonja Tsung-Ying CHOU, Ruying LI, Wenjun CHEN, Shanxiang JIANG
    Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine    2022, 42 (1): 18-26.   DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2022.011
    Abstract1351)   HTML217)    PDF (903KB)(2380)       Save

    General anesthetics used for laboratory animals are mostly controlled drugs, and are subject to strict supervision by the competent government agency in China. Many general anesthetics recommended in the literature are either unavailable or difficult to procure/access in the market, resulting in limited options for clinical use. Furthermore, not all laboratory veterinarians have practical experience in species-specific anesthetic selection and use. Owing to these factors, general anesthesia presents a common institutional challenge in animal surgical programs and serves as a bottleneck that restricts the sustainable development of biomedical industries working with laboratory animal species. This article summarizes the pharmacological properties of common general anesthetics and provides suggestions for general anesthesia in different laboratory animal species.

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    Dynamic Observation of In vivo Bioluminescence Imaging of Orthotopic Implantation of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Nude Mice
    YAN Ming-xia,LIU Lei,ZHU Miao-xin,ZHAO Fang-yu,SA Bing-qing,LIANG Lin-hui,YAO Ming
       2010, 30 (6): 401-405.  
    Abstract2737)      PDF (489KB)(1723)       Save
    Objective To establish a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line with stable and high-level GFP/Luciferase(Luc) expression, and observe the development of tumors in deep organisms of the nude mice by in vivo biofluorescence imaging. Methods The SMMC-7721 -GFP/Luc cell line were established by lentivirus transfection,then were orthotopic implanted in the liver of the BALB/c nude micc, the behaviors of the tumors was detected by in vivo bioluminescence imaging. Results The cell line SMMC-7721-GFP/Luc with stable and high-level GFP/Luc expression had been successfully established. After the cell line had been inoculated in the liver of the nude mice, the tiny tumor masses in early time and the growth of tumors in late time in the deep organisms were observed by in vivo biofluorescence imaging. Conclusion The use of cell line SMMC-7721 -GFP/Luc could directly observe the tumor growth and metastasis in the orthotopic implantation animal model. It would help us to understand the biological behavior of human hepatocellular carcinoma and its characteristics. In view of its sensibility, intuitiveness, dynamics and reliability, it would do some good to further study of human hepatocellular carcinoma.
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    Expression of GRP78 mRNA in Obese Tissue of Rats Fed with High Fat Diet
    LIU Jia,DU Jian,PEI Li-na,LUO Hong-fei,GUO Ning-ning,LIN Zhi-nan,Zhang Ke-ying
       2010, 30 (6): 436-439.  
    Abstract1953)      PDF (281KB)(1587)       Save
    Objective To observe the expression of GRP78 mRNA in visceral obese of rats fed with high fat diet in order to explore its effects on insulin resistance. Methods Thirty Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: normal chow group (NC) was fed with free normal chow for 10 weeks; high fat group (HF) was fed with high fat diet for 10 weeks. The expression of GRP78 mRNA was detected by real time PCR. The total cholesterol triglyceride,the rate of visceral fat (epididymal fat) vs. body weight and fasting insulin were also detected.ResuIts (1) Glucose infusion rate (GIR) in HF group was obviously lower than that in NC group ( P<0.01). Rats in HF group had an elevation of fasting insulin compared with NC group ( P<0.05). (2) The expression of GRP78 mRNA was significantly higher in HF group than that in NC group ( P<0.01). (3) Rats in HF group had an obviously elevation of fasting insulin ,total cholesterol and triglyceride compared with NC group Conclusion After 10 weeks fed with high fat diet, the insulin resistant animal models was established. High fat diet can induce the expression of GRP78 mRNA in visceral obese tissue.
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    A Comparative Analysis of CNAS Laboratory Animal Institutions Accreditation and AAALAC Certification
    Xiaohuai WU, Qiaozhe XIAO, Wanyong PANG, Yu BAI, Yao LI, Xuancheng LU, Tao FENG
    Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine    2022, 42 (3): 237-243.   DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2022.033
    Abstract937)   HTML126)    PDF (821KB)(1585)       Save

    China National Accreditation Service for Conformity Assessment (CNAS) laboratory animal institutions accreditation is an important system for the management of laboratory animals in China. It is a third-party evaluation on Chinese characteristics dedicated to ensuring the quality and welfare of laboratory animals in China. The American Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care (AAALAC) certification provides global services about animal welfare evaluation and ethical certification, which are important for management and use of laboratory animals. This study compared and analyzed the nature of CNAS and AAALAC, the nature of CNAS accreditation and AAALAC certification, the evaluation principles, required documents, the evaluation process, the management of reviewers, and the acceptance of results, and discussed the differences and characteristics of the two evaluation systems for laboratory animal institutions.

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    Establishing and E thology Evaluation of Anger-out and Anger-in Inducing Premenstrusl Syndrome Macaque Model
    ZHANG Hui-yun,WEI Sheng,QIAO Ming-qi
       2010, 30 (6): 406-409.  
    Abstract2174)      PDF (239KB)(1545)       Save
    Objective Establishing anger-out and anger-in inducing emotional diseases macaque model to provide suitable research object for brain center mechanism of anger-out and anger-in inducing emotional diseases. Methods Using female macaque and inducing anger emotion occurence, then applying “Emotional evaluation scale of female experiment macaque”to score different emotion type of macaque model. We will differentiate anger-out and anger-in types from all anger monkeys based on scale scores and finish evaluating different anger types. Using anger-out and anger-in monkeys individu-ally add to pressurization method to prepare anger-in or anger-out inducing emotional diseases monkey model. Results After modeling stress,anger factors of PMS liver-qi invasion model monkeys increased significantly than control team( P<0.05), while PMS liver-qi depression model monkeys had a notable change compared with control team( P<0.05). While there is no difference compared with control team ( P>0.05) after administration. Conclusion It could be inferred that target disease could be induced successfully using social surbodination stress according to results of 30-minute group ad libitum obser-vation and scale scores, subjective combined objective results were regarded as a good measure methods to evaluate target emotional disease occurence on macaque. Idea and method mentioned above provide a suitable research object for occurrence pathogenesy of anger-out and anger-in emotion inducing emotional disorder.
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    The Changes of Cardiac Structure and Function Induced by Hypokalemia with Echocardiography
    LU Min,XU Rong,WANG Yin-chun
       2010, 30 (6): 424-427.  
    Abstract2044)      PDF (304KB)(1436)       Save
    Objective To explore the correlation between serum potassium levels and the changes of the heart, the real-time echocardiography was applied to monitor the effects of hypokalemia on the heart structure and function of the experimental rabbits, and for the purpose of early diagnosis and treatment in the clinical practice. Methods The hypokalemia experimental model was established by intramuscu-lar furosemide injection. M-mode echocardiography was used to monitor the cardiac morphology,the sequential variation of flow spectrum and cardiac function. After that, the heart was removed and the tissue was made into pathological section and dyed with HE. Results The cardiac morphology and function of the rabbits showed little change during the early and middle stage. Then, the heart dilated rapidly, and its function decreased until cardiac arrest. The myocardial pathological section showed swell and vacuolization of the myocardial cells. Conclusion There were a series of changes in the heart of rabbit during the decreasing process of serum potassium concentration, and echocardiography is a noninvasive method to monitor these changes, it can observe the heart morphology and evaluate the cardiac function accurately in real time. Thus, echocardiography provides a convenient and reliable method for monitoring the heart complications induced by hypokalemia.
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    The Application of Toluidine Blue in Histological Staining
    DAI Xiao-wei,HUANG Lan,XU Yan-feng,MA Chun-mei
       2010, 30 (6): 440-444.  
    Abstract2608)      PDF (748KB)(1408)       Save
    Objective To expand the application of toluidine blue staining. Methods Skin, lung,trachea, cerebrum and spinal cord tissues were collected and fixed by 4% formalin. After routine slicing,the slices were stained by toluidine blue. Lastly the feature of all kinds of tissues under microscope was observed. Results Besides nissl body was clearly showed,the langerhan's cell, melanocytes and merkel cell in skin can also be differentiated. The type I alveolarenhanced by toluidine blue staining.The layers of cerebral cortex were displayed much more clearly than HE stai cell,type II alveolar cell and macrophage in lung and the ciliated cell and goblet cell in trachea were markedly ning. Conclusion Toluidine blue staining may be explored in skin, lung, trachea, cerebrum and spinal cord tissues.
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    Studies on the Determination of Islets β Cell in Scalded Rats with LPS-injccted and the Effects of GIK Treatment
    WANG Zhan-ke1,2,CHANG Jin1,WANG Shi-liang3,XU Lin-shui3,LIU Long-yan2,HU Yang-tao2,YU Wen2
       2010, 30 (6): 420-423.  
    Abstract2163)      PDF (219KB)(1380)       Save
    Objective To study the dysfunction of islets β cell in scalded rats with LPS-injected and. the effects of GIK(glucose-insulin- Potassium) treatment to the islets P cell. Methods Ninety SD scalded rats with LPS-injected were divided randomly into the S+LPS( n=30),GIK ( n=30) and control groups( n=30). The glucose and insulin of the fasting and 30min post of glucose injected of the all groups were determined, and the HOMA-β,△ INS30/△ GLU30 and HOMA-IR were calculated and observed. Results The glucose and insulin of the fasting and 30min post of glucose injected and the HOMA-IR of the S+LPS group were higher than that of the before scalded(P<0.01), but the HOMA-β and △ INS30/△ GLU30 of the S+LPS group were lower than that of the before scalded(P<0.01). The HOMA-β and △ INS30/△ GLU30 of the GIK group were higher than that of the control group, there was no difference of HOMA-TR significantly between the GIK and control group. Conclusion The serious burn rats represents dysfunction of early phase and basal insulin release of p cell, GIK treatment would be beneficial for the protect of β cell on this states.
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    Establishment and Biological Characteristics of Orthotopic Transplantion Tumor Model of Hepatocellar Carcinoma Cell line in Nude Rat
    SHEN Yan1,PENG Xiu-hua1,XU Chun-hua1,ZHOU Wen-jiang1,2
       2010, 30 (6): 428-431.  
    Abstract2951)      PDF (445KB)(1354)       Save
    Objective To study the growth and metastases of the tumors after orthotopic transplan-tation with hepatocellar carcinoma cell line (Huh-7) in nude rat. Methods Tissue from the tumor inoculated subcutaneously in nude mice with Huh-7 cell line was transferred to the nude rat beneath the skin. Subcutaneous and orthotopic implant models simulating hepatocellar carcinoma was established by suturing histologically intact human tumor tissue on the liver of nude rat. Subsequently,the rate of the orthotopic tumor and their biological properties of tumor growth and metastasis were observed.Tuinorgenecity, invasion,metastasis and morphological characteristics of the implanted tumors were studied by light microscopy, electron microscopy and flow cytometry. Results In orthotopic trans-plant model of nude rat,tumor formation rate was 90.0% and metastasis rate of liver was 50.0%.Conclusions The nude rat is more suitable for orthotopic transplant models for hepatocellar carcinoma,and should be valuable for research on mechanism and new therapies for metastasis.
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    Comparison of Three Detection Methods of Clostridum Piliforme Infections in Laboratory Rats
    DING Cong1,FENG Jie2,XIE Jian-yun2,CHEN Lu3,GAO Cheng2,HU Jian-hua2
       2010, 30 (6): 415-419.  
    Abstract1932)      PDF (317KB)(1330)       Save
    Objective To investigate the infection states of Clostridium piliforme in laboratory rats and evaluate the usefulness of indirect fluorescent antibody assay(IFA), nested-polymerase chain reac-tion (nested-PCR), ELISA. Methods Specimens were collected from the rat colonies and detected for C.Piliforme by using IFA, ELISA and nested-PCR methods at the same time. The results of three detection methods were compared and analysis. Results A total 125 Rats,36 out of 125 serum samples (28.8%) are showed to be positive by IFA; 24 out of 125 serum samples(19.2%) are showed to be positive by ELISA;6 out of 125 liver and fecal samples (4.8%) was positive by PCR. The positive rate of detected by IFA and ELISA were higher than PCR. Conclusions IFA method to combination with ELISA method can improve the sensitivity and reliability of the detection results. For the positive samples could be differentiated by PCR method. By contrast, IFA is a quick ,reliable and cheap method. IFA is available for the epidemiological investigation of C.Piliforme.
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    Premature Aging in Zebrafish Heterozygous breakdance Mutant
    CHEN Zhen-yue1,2,XU Xiao-lei2,WU Li-qun1,LU Guo-ping1
       2010, 30 (6): 410-414.  
    Abstract2153)      PDF (464KB)(1312)       Save
    Objcctivc The breakdance-mutation ( bretb 218) has been described as a mutation in the zebrafish orthologe of the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG, kcnh2) with an arrhythmic heart beat in the homozygous. Interestingly, we found the heterozygous (hets) could generate multiple premature aging-like features and distinct electrophysiology. It made possible to develop a vertebrate model for study on premature aging associated to kcnh2. Methods Life span and body shape change were followed up and recorded. Exercise endurance capacity was examined by swim test. ECG test was performed in wild type (WT) and the hets at different adult stages. Results Survival rate dramatically descended and curly body showed from 20 months in the hets. ECG test showed heart rate dramatically decreased along aging process and QTc duration prolonged in the hets. Exercise endurance capacity significantly reduced 56.44% in the hets at 32 months comparing to WT at the same stage.Conclusion The heterozygous breib 218 has shorter life span and showed the presenility on appearance, electrophysiology and the exercise endurance capacity which may associate to the mutation in one allele of zebrafish orthologue of kcnh2.
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    Pathological Observation on Macaca speciose thibetanas with Secondary Infection Caused by Diarrhea
    ZHONG Zhen-dong1,XU Yao-zhong1,YAO Fang1,WEI Jian-jun2,ZHONG Hao1,ZHOU Liang1,HE Yong-liang1,LI Jun-hui1
       2010, 30 (6): 432-435.  
    Abstract1990)      PDF (451KB)(1262)       Save
    Objective To probe etiopathogenesis of secondary infection caused by diarrhea in one Macaca speciose thibetanas. Methods The pathological observation on an 8 year-old Macaca speciose thibetanas with historically recurring diarrhea were carried out. Results Macaca speciose thibetanas was in the the dehydrant condition as showed in the clinical symptom. Also serious pathologyical change was observed in the lung and intestine. Histopathologically, granular degeneration and vacuolar degenera-tion were observed in the liver and kidneys. Congestion and hyperemia were observed in the blood vessel of many tissues and organization, and the inervallum of vessel wall was swollen. Pancreas,bladder and brain were normal. Conclusion The characters of diarrhea in Macaca speciose thibetanas are complex etiological factors and seasonal occurrence. The treatments on diarrhea of such animal are suggested to mainly depend on TCM and modern treatments to be adjuvant.
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    Progress in Animal Models of Ischemic Stroke
    Bo DONG, Jiaxin LIU, Wei XIONG, Songqi TANG, Wei HUANG
    Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine    2022, 42 (1): 54-61.   DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2021.049
    Abstract445)   HTML36)    PDF (970KB)(1151)       Save

    Ischemic stroke refers to the ischemic necrosis or softening of limited brain tissue caused by cerebral blood circulation disorder, ischemia and hypoxia, resulting in corresponding neurological functional defects. Ischemic stroke is one of the primary causes of human disability, seriously threatens human health, and there is still no effective treatment by now. In order to study the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke and prevent and treat it better, it is very important to establish appropriate animal models.This paper aims to summarize the animal models of ischemic stroke and its advantages and disadvantages.

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    Preparation of Neutralized Mouse Anti-human FL Monoclonal Antibody
    GAO Wen-jie,CHAI Qing,ZHANG Xue-guang,JU Song-guang,XUE Zhi-mou
       2010, 30 (4): 293-296.  
    Abstract1099)      PDF (223KB)(1106)       Save
    Objective To prepare monoclonal antibodies against human FL molecule and analysis of their biological characteristics. Methods The BALB/c mice were immunized with the transfected cell line L929/FL that expressed membrane FL. The splenocytes from the immunized mice were fused with myeloma cell line SP2/0,and then the hybridoma cells were screened with immunostaing and FCM. The isotype of the monoclonal antibody identified by rapid isotyping analysis, and the FL expression profile on tumor cell lines was analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence with mAb 3E5. To analysis the biological function of mAb 3E5, we added the 3E5 to the RPMI1640 medium containing FL protein to culture THP-1 cells. Results a hybridoma cell line named 3E5 was obtained, which had the property of secreting anti-human FL monoclonal antibody continuously and steadily. Fast-strip method analysis displayed that these mAbs belong to mouse IgGl,K. The mAb 3E5 could recognize FL molecules on different cell lines. FL protein could enhance the proliferation of THP-1, and it could be neutralized by 3E5 mAb. Conclusion Our study established a neutralized anti-human FL mAb which may prove a useful tool for studying the biological fUnction of FL.
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    Morris Water Maze Video Behavioral Analysis Using Imagej
    FU Peng-cheng,ZHOU Lin,LI Min,YANG Qi-dong
       2009, 29 (3): 157-161.  
    Abstract4454)      PDF (303KB)(1095)       Save
    Objective To analyzed Morris water maze video based on the usage of ImageJ. Methods USB camera and common PC (Intel Pentium 4 CPU 1,70GHz) were used, and it's not necessary to mark the animals. After the procedures of setting scale, removing background and binaryzation with ImageJ, we used MultiTracker,an ImageJ plugin ,which can track the movement of multiple objects,to analyze the results. Result Swimming paths of rats and paths can be successfully analyzed. Conclusion This method based on a free software and low hardware requirements, can get all necessary date of Morris water maze.
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    Establishment of Orthotopic Colon Tumor and Metastasis Model by Coloclysis of MNU in Rat
    TANG Mao-sheng, HU Zhi-qian,WANG Wei-jun, YAO Hou-shan, PENG huan, WANG Qiang
       2010, 30 (1): 12-16.  
    Abstract1063)      PDF (483KB)(1067)       Save
    Objective To establish an orthotopic colon tumor and metastasis model by the coloclysis of MNU in SD Rat, to observe the carcinogenesis development and the metastasis process. Methods SD Rats were given the MNU clyster,the clinical symptom was checked, the tumor growth, metastasis of the rat were observed. To respectively sacrifice 12 SD rat every time at 8, 12, 16 weeks later, observe the tumor in situ and the metastasis. Evaluate the effect of this colon cancer model through pathological methods. Result None of the SD rat died, 8 weeks later,clinical symptom show hematochezia and lymphadenectasis,16 weeks later, 91.7% rat formed colon neoplasma and many lymphadenectasis,pathological examination confirm the colon adencarcinoma with lymph node metastasis. Conclusion The successful establishment of orthotopic colon tumor model by the coloclysis of MNU in SD Rat. The induction process is convenience and utility, the model has the colon carcinoma autogenesis development successfully.The orthotopic tumor and metastasis model provide useful tools for the study of mecha-nism of metastasis and its treatment of colon cancer.
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    Preliminary Study on Correlation between Plasma Titers of Ox-LDL Auto-antibody and Extent of Atherosclerosis in Mice Auto-antibody and Extent of Atherosclerosis in Mice
    CHEN Jia-wei,ZHOU Shi-bei,TAN Zhi-ming
       2010, 30 (4): 261-264.  
    Abstract1249)      PDF (230KB)(1059)       Save
    Objective To identify a potential plasma marker for the prediction of atherosclerosis in mice. Methods C57BL/6J mice were fed on regular diet. Apo-E deficient mice (on C57BL/6J background) were divided into four groups,group A: high cholesterol diet (1% cholesterol) alone, group B: high-cholesterol diet with rosuvastatin (lmg/kg/d),group C: high-cholesterol diet with candesartan (1 mg/kg/d), and group D: high-cholesterol diet with rosuvastatin and candesartan. All the mice groups were fed for 12 weeks. Plasma titers of ox-LDL auto-antibodies in relation to the extent of atherosclerosis in these mice were measured. Results C57BL/6J mice had no atherosclerosis, whereas mice in group A had extensive atherosclerosis. The extent of atherosclerosis was decreased in group B and C mice, despite high-cholesterol diet. Moreover, the extent of atherosclerosis was further decreased in group D mice. The plasma titers of four ox-LDL auto-antibodies were measured. It was found that the mean values of all antibodies, includ-ing Cu-LDL-IgG, Cu-LDL-IgM,MDA-LDL-IgG and MDA-LDL-IgM, were higher in group A mice than in C57BL/6J mice ( P<0.01). Compared with group A mice,group B,C and D mice had lower plasma titers of Cu-LDL-IgG, which was consistent with the decrease in extent of atherosclerosis. Compared with that of C57BL/6J mice, plasma level of ox-LDL reduced in group A mice ( P<0.01). Although plasma level of ox-LDL also reduced in group B and C mice,it was restored back to normal level in group D mice. Conclusion The plasma titer of Cu-LDL-IgG is consistent with the progression and regression of atherosclerosis and it may serve as a marker for the prediction of atherosclerosis.
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    Monitoring on Cardiovascular and Physiology Characteristics of Beagle Dog by Telemetry
    LI Na,WANG Wen-yu,XI Jian-fei,XU Hao,DING Shuang-shuang,ZHANG Zhou
       2010, 30 (5): 354-358.  
    Abstract1167)      PDF (245KB)(1057)       Save
    Objective To monitor the heart rate、temperature、hemodynamics and electrocardio-gram of beagle dog by telemetry. Methods After two weeks of imbedding the sensor in abdomen muscle, the heart rate、temperature、hemodynamics and electrocardiogram were monitored continuously for 24 hours by Dataquest A.R.T. 2.3, and repeated on next week. Results In all of the monitor process, every index maintain the normal level, but the heart rate rise to the highest about 95.58±15.89 beat per minute at 10 : 00 am, with the systolic pressure、mean arterial blood pressure and diastolic pressure were 152.37± 10.67 mmHg、109.37±5.90 mmHg and 87.73±5.01 mmHg respectively. No differences were found between the two detection( P>0.05). Conclusions The cardiovascular cardiovascular and physiology Characteristics of Beagle dog could been monitored more exactly by telemetry, and the beagle dog was very excited on diet.
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    Study on Biological Characteristics of Spontaneous Type 2 Diabetic db/db Mice
    LI Na, ZHANG Zhou, FENG Ying
       2010, 30 (1): 33-38.  
    Abstract2270)      PDF (497KB)(1048)       Save
    Objective To compare the biological characteristics of spontaneous type 2 diabetic C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice in growth curve, glucose metabolism, serum insulin, weight of major organs,and organ coefficient with C57BL/Ks J-db/+ mice as the control, then the morphologic changes of the liver, kidney and pancreas were observed. Methods Forth weeks old mice were used with total of twenty weeks experimental period, the weight and glucose at each week, serum insulin at every two weeks were measured. After the experimental period, the mice were sacrified, and the organ and fat were weighted. The pathological changes of the liver, kidney and pancreas were observed. Results ① The weight, glucose and serum insulin of db/db mice were higher than those of the control group at the same age( P P<0.01). But the spleen,pancreas and kidney was less relatively, especially of the spleen and pancreas in female mice( P<0.01).③ The liver appeared significant cell putrescence, adipose degeneration, inflammatory cell infiltration and fibroplastic proliferation in db/db mice. The renal interstitial appeared hyperaemia, dropsy, hyaline cast in renal tubules, and adipose degeneration of epithelial cell. At the same time,the number of glomeruli pancreatici and islet cells decreased obviously. Conclusions The db/db mice is a suitable disease model of type 2 diabetes mellitus, which shows hyperglycemia, high insulin resistance,insufficiency of islet function, renal and hepatic alterations.
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