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    25 December 2023, Volume 43 Issue 6
    Animal Experimental Techniques and Methods
    Establishment of PCR Identification Method for Pig Blood Type
    Jiaoxiang WANG, Yan WANG, Ke HU, Kaixiang XU, Taiyun WEI, Deling JIAO, Heng ZHAO, Hongye ZHAO, HongJiang WEI
    2023, 43(6):  585-594.  DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2023.065
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    Objective Xenotransplantation is an effective way to address the shortage of human organ donors, but it faces serious immune rejection reactions, including hyperacute rejection caused by blood type differences. Establishing a stable, convenient, and reliable method for pig blood type identification can quickly screen suitable donor pigs for xenograft research. Methods Banna miniature inbred pigs, Diannan small eared pigs, and Bama Xiang pigs were selected as the research objects. DNA was extracted from the blood, oral buccal mucosa, and fetal fibroblasts of the three strains of pigs using DNA extraction kits. The target fragment of the ABO homologous gene EAA intron 7 in pigs was amplified using PCR method. Blood agglutination reaction was used to detect hemolysis in pig anterior vena cava whole blood after adding anti A and B antibodies. Immunohistochemical method was used to detect the expression level of A antigen in pig heart, liver, spleen, lung, and kidney tissues. Immunofluorescence method was used to detect the expression level of A antigen in pig oral mucosa. By comparing the results of different methods for determining pig blood types, the stability and reliability of the PCR method were verified, and a convenient PCR based pig blood type identification method was established. Results Firstly, the blood PCR results of 69 inbred strains of Banna miniature pigs, 7 Diannan small eared pigs, and 34 Bama Xiang pigs showed 20 AO blood types, 66 AA blood types, and 24 O blood types. The PCR results of fetal fibroblasts from 47 Diannan small eared pigs showed that all 47 fetuses were O blood type. Among them, the oral mucosal PCR results of 8 gene edited cloned pigs were consistent with those of donor fetal fibroblasts, all of which were O blood type. The oral mucosal PCR results of 8 wild-type pigs (2 inbred lines of Banna miniature pigs, 4 Diannan small eared pigs, and 2 Bama Xiang pigs) were consistent with the blood PCR identification results. Then, 11 inbred lines of Banna miniature pigs, 4 Diannan small eared pigs, and 2 Bama Xiang pigs were randomly selected for blood agglutination reaction validation, and the results were consistent with the PCR identification results of both blood samples and oral mucosa samples. Moreover, immuno-histochemical analysis was performed on the heart, liver, lung, kidney, and spleen tissues of one Banna miniature pig inbred line and two Bama Xiang pigs, and the results were consistent with blood PCR identification and blood agglutination reaction results. Finally, oral mucosal samples were collected from 2 inbred strains of Banna miniature pigs and 1 Bama Xiang pig for immunofluorescence detection, and the results were consistent with the blood PCR identification results. Conclusion By collecting fetal cells and oral mucosal samples from live pigs for PCR detection, the blood type of pigs can be accurately and efficiently identified, providing a convenient method for blood type screening of xenograft donor pigs.

    Construction and Evaluation of End-to-side Anastomosis Model of Autologous Arteriovenous Fistula in Mice
    Xin LIU, Shaobo SHI, Cui ZHANG, Bo YANG, Chuan QU
    2023, 43(6):  595-603.  DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2023.093
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    Objective To establish an animal model of autologous arteriovenous fistula in mice and evaluate its effect. Methods The left external jugular vein and common carotid artery of 10 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were separated by end-to-side anastomosis of external jugular vein and common carotid artery after anesthesia, and the right jugular vein was exposed without suture as a control, so as to establish an animal model of internal arteriovenous fistula. Doppler ultrasound, HE and Masson staining and immunohistochemical staining were used to observe the hemodynamics, intimal hyperplasia and protein expression of smooth muscle cell proliferation in the outflow vein of the internal arteriovenous fistula and the contralateral control vein, and to evaluate the effect of model construction. Results A total of 10 mice were selected for this study, and 9 mice were successfully modeled, with a success rate of 90%. Ultrasound examinations were performed on the day of surgery, 7 and 14 days after surgery, respectively. The results showed that the flow velocity near the anastomosis was linearly correlated with the diameter of the tube. The higher the flow velocity, the larger the diameter of the tube. There was a positive correlation between peak velocity and lumen diameter (P=0.000 6, R2=0.831 7). After surgery 14 days, HE staining results showed that after autologous arteriovenous fistula molding, the average lumen area of outflow segment vein was significantly decreased (P < 0.000 1), the intima area was significantly increased (P < 0.000 1), the intimal area was significantly increased (P < 0.000 1). On the surgical side of arteriovenous fistula, collagen deposition was significantly increased, and the proportion of Masson-positive regions was significantly increased (P < 0.000 1). Immunohistochemical staining showed that the proportion of collagen 1 positive areas on the surgical side of arteriovenous fistula was significantly upregulated (P < 0.000 1), and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) , proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) positive cells increased significantly (P < 0.000 1), indicating an increase in local cell proliferation level. Conclusion The established mouse autologous arteriovenous fistula model has the advantages of high success rate, good stability and low cost. The model provides a good carrier for exploring the biological mechanism of intimal hyperplasia in arteriovenous fistulas.

    Construction and Verification of Quality Evaluation Indicator System for Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Animal Experimental Platform
    Shuo WANG, Yunhui LÜ, Xiaokang WANG, Zhenhao ZHANG, Yongchun CUI
    2023, 43(6):  604-611.  DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2023.107
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    Objective To establish a standardized and professional service quality evaluation index system for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) animal experimental platform. Methods The literature research and expert consultation were used to establish a factor set for the quality evaluation of ECMO animal experimental platform. Then, experts used the 1/9-9 scale method to compare and score pair-two indicators. Based on the principles of fuzzy analytic hierarchy process and expert scoring results, the ECMO animal experimental platform quality evaluation system was constructed. In order to verify the actual efficacy of this system, a case study was carried out on the ECMO animal experiment platform of FW Animal Experimental Center (FAEC) laboratory. Results A total of 10 experts were included in this study, the questionnaire recovery rate was 100%, the judgment coefficient (Ca) and familiarity coefficient (Cs) were both greater than 0.50, the expert authority was high (Cr>0.80), the validity test was P<0.01, and the coordination was good. The quality evaluation system of ECMO animal experiment platform includes two levels. There are 4 first-level indicators, with professionalism, safety, functionality, and stability ranked from high to low in terms of their weights. There are 15 second-level indicators, and the top 5 weights are personnel's technical expertise, attractiveness of hardware facility, auditability of data, confidentiality capabilities of data, and professionalism in service process. To facilitate the popularization and application of the system, this study also proposed a "star" system to represent the evaluation results of an ECMO animal experimental platform quality. The quality evaluation system established in this study was used to evaluate the FAEC laboratory as a case study, and the evaluation result was five-star. The actual potency value of FAEC laboratory was 0.910, reaching the five-star level, but the average actual appraisal values of "service continuity" and "sufficiency of project completion" were lower than 0.80, which needs to be improved. Conclusion A standardized and professional ECMO animal experimental platform quality evaluation system was established in this study, which would provide a measurable basis for the demander to select the supplier and a method for the supplier to complete the animal experiment of ECMO research and development with high quality.

    Study on the Antibody Production Efficiency in Modified Big-BALB/c Mice
    Dan WANG, Xiaolu ZHANG, Yan WANG, Bo FU, Wendong WANG, Jing LIU, Suyin ZHANG, Yihe WU, Deguo WU, Xiaoyan DU, Dawei ZHAN, Xiulin ZHANG, Changlong LI
    2023, 43(6):  612-618.  DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2023.035
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    Objective To compare the preparation efficiency of mouse pox and mouse hepatitis antibodies between two substrains of BALB/c and Big-BALB/c (B-BALB/c) mice, and to provide a theoretical basis and reference for the selection of laboratory animals in the preparation of monoclonal antibodies induced in vivo through hybridoma. Methods Individuals weighing more than 5% of the weight of normal animals at 4 weeks of age (the criterion for late selection is more than 10%) were selected from a population of conventionally bred BALB/c mice and bred individually, and a subline of B-BALB/c mice was prepared after 10 generations of selection. A total of 40 BALB/c mice and 40 B-BALB/c mice aged 10 to 11 weeks, half male and half female, were selected and inoculated with the mousepox monoclonal antibody hybridoma cell line G23 or the murine hepatitis monoclonal antibody hybridoma cell line Y15 pre-treated with liquid paraffin, respectively. Mice ascites containing monoclonal antibodies were obtained by in vivo induction. The antibody titer was tested by indirect ELISA. The mice were grouped based on the sub-strains, gender and inoculation type of hybridoma to analyze the ascites production, antibody titer and antibody production, and to evaluate the antibody preparation efficiency of the two BALB/c mouse sub-strains. Results After 10 generations of breeding, the body weight of 10-week-old male and female B-BALB/c mice increased by 22.3% and 12.8%, respectively, compared with BALB/c mice of the same age. Compared with BALB/c mice, B-BALB/c mice had better tolerance and adaptation to secondary ascites collection. Compared with BALB/c mice, the ascites production and antibody titer during the preparation of antibodies in B-BALB/c mice were significantly increased, especially in the hybridoma cell line G23 vaccination group (both P<0.000 1) . After inoculation with the hybridoma cell lines G23 or Y15, the average antibody production of B-BALB/c mice (14.99×104 U and 33.22×104 U) was higher than that of BALB/c mice (5.33×104 U and 19.31×104 U) (both P<0.01). After inoculation with hybridoma cell line G23, the average antibody production per unit body weight of B-BALB/c mice (0.55×104 U/g) was higher than that of BALB/c mice (0.23×104 U/g) (P<0.000 1). And the antibody production per unit body weight of female B-BALB/c or BALB/c mice was higher than that of male B-BALB/c or BALB/c mice (both P<0.01). Conclusion B-BALB/c mice can be used as an alternative to BALB/c mice in the in vivo induction of monoclonal antibody preparation, which can achieve the purpose of reducing the number of experimental animals used, lowering the labor cost, and improving the efficiency of antibody preparation.

    Research on the Virulence Identification and Preservation Methods of Desert-type Leishmania donovani Strains
    Lifu LIAO, Yun LUO, Shen SHI, Yimei XU
    2023, 43(6):  619-625.  DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2023.034
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    Objective To determine the virulence of desert-type Leishmania donovani strains through animal infection experiments and to explore preservation methods for maintaining their pathogenicity. Methods The isolated strain was cultured in vitro for 7, 30, 36, 44, 60, 90, and 150 days, respectively, and inoculated into Lagurus lagurus (L.lagurus) with the dose of 2.6×105 per animal by intraperitoneal injection. The spleen coefficient, infection rate, and antibody positive rate of the inoculated animals were detected at day 60 after infection. The desert-type Leishmania donovani strain was further inoculated with Cricetulus migratorius (C.migratorius) and L. lagurus, respectively, for passaging and preservation. The survival time of two kinds of animals and pathogenicity change of the stain in their bodies were compared. Results After inoculation of desert-type Leishmania donovani strains cultured in vitro for 7-150 days, the spleen coefficient of inoculated L.lagurus gradually increased from 1% on day 7 to 2.2% on day 30, which was more than 10 times of the normal spleen coefficient. Additionally, on day 60, the spleen coefficient remained 3 times higher than the normal value. The infection rate and antibody positive rate decreased from 80% on day 7 to 0% on day 60. At 90 days, there were no significant differences between the infected groups and the control group, and all the observed indexes were within the normal range. The survival time of L.lagurus infected with the in vivo passage strain ranged from 1 to 13 months, and half of the infected individuals died within 4 months. In contrast, C.migratorius had a survival time ranging from 5 to 31 months, and half of the infected individuals died within an average of 13.7 months. There was a significant difference in the average time of death between the two groups (t=0.000 1, P<0.001), but no significant difference in spleen coefficient (t=0.990, P>0.05). This strain exhibited equal virulence in both animals and remained virulent for up to 4 years after continuous passage. Conclusion With the prolonged culture time, the virulence of the strain decreases gradually. At 90 d, it has no pathogenicity to L. lagurus. Long-term in vitro culture fails to preserve it's pathogenicity to L.lagurus. Only in vivo inoculation can maintain the virulence of this strain.

    Visual Analysis of Animal Experiments on Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Nursing Technology Based on VOSviewer
    Jinhuan MIAO, Xia XU, Lu ZHOU, Haiyan CHENG, Yan HE
    2023, 43(6):  626-635.  DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2023.037
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    Objective Through the visual analysis of animal experimental literature on Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) nursing technology, the relevant research hot spots were condensed and the research trends of relevant animal models were discussed, to provide reference for subsequent research. Methods The literature related to animal experiments on Chinese medicine nursing technology was retrieved from Wan Fang database, Chinese Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP), China National Knowledge Infrastructure Engineering Database (CNKI), China Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), PubMed and Web of Science until June 30, 2022. Visual analysis was performed using VOSviewer 1.6.17 software. Results A total of 1 864 articles in Chinese and 126 articles in English were included, with the number of annual publications increasing year by year. The relevant literature involved 18 TCM nursing techniques, with the largest number (426) involving massage having the highest number of articles. It involved 4 496 authors, out of whom 358 were core authors accounting for 7.9% of all authors, and had a total count of 3 706 keywords forming 7 clusters. The research hotspots mainly included massage treatment of inflammatory diseases and analgesic effect, acupoint injection treatment of allergic rhinitis and myocardial ischemia, acupoint application treatment of asthma-related respiratory diseases, and moxibustion treatment of inflammatory diseases. The study of the mechanism of abdominal massage on insulin resistance is the latest research topic among them. Conclusion In recent years, the animal model of abdominal massage has gained increasing popularity in animal experiments of TCM nursing techniques. However, the establishment and application of animal models related to Chinese medicine soaking and Chinese medicine hot ironing have not yet received attention. This area can be explored in the future to further improve the animal experimental research on Chinese medicine nursing technology.

    Rescue Technology and Its Application of Endangered Gene-Edited Mice
    Yongqiang NIE, Zhaoxia WANG
    2023, 43(6):  636-640.  DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2023.080
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    Gene-edited mice are the most ideal laboratory animals for studying human gene functions, exploring disease mechanisms, and developing new drugs. Strain resulting from low fertility, aging, illness, etc. can cause irreversible losses to scientific research, so strain rescues of genetically engineering mice require different measures accordingly. Meanwhile, cost control is another key point when a specific technology is applied. First of all, when the only remaining gene-edited mouse in reproductive age suddenly dies, the dead male mouse can be rescued by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), while the female mouse can be saved by ovarian transplantation, etc. Secondly, due to aging or diseases, mice can be saved through IVF-embryo transfer (ET) and unilateral epididymal tail assisted reproduction. Thirdly, round sperm injection (ROSI) and ovarian transplantation can be used to save endangered mice before sexual maturity with poor life status. This paper reviews rescue techniques of common endangered mice and their applications, which provides a reference for relevant practitioners to better maintain gene-edited mouse strains.

    Educational and Teaching Practice
    Exploration of Laboratory Animal Science Teaching Practice from Perspectives of Curriculum Ideology and Politics
    Ya ZHAO, Caiqin ZHANG, Han MENG, Jing QIN, Bing BAI, Yong ZHAO, Xu GE, Changhong SHI
    2023, 43(6):  641-646.  DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2023.109
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    The ideological and political content of the laboratory animal science degree course with the basic task of "cultivating morality and cultivating people" is organically integrated into the teaching system of laboratory animal science. It can have a subtle influence on students' thoughts and behaviors. Combined with the curriculum design and professional characteristics of laboratory animal science, this article discussed the ideological and political elements contained in this course, proposed the forms and methods of integrating ideological and political elements into the curriculum design in each chapter. Additionally, the typical cases and characteristic practices of the organic connection of ideological and political education in the teaching system of laboratory animal science were summarized. Practice has proved that integrating the ideological and political elements into the teaching system of laboratory animal science can enhance teacher's awareness and ability of politics, thus effectively improving the compre-hensive quality of students and enhancing the effectiveness of ideological and political education in laboratory animal science.

    Case Reports
    Diagnosis of a Primary Pleomorphic Liposarcoma in a Tree Shrew(Tupaia belangeri subsp. yaoshanensis
    Zhuxin LI, Liang LIANG, Yingying CAO, Shanshan ZHAI, Yinhan DAI, Xia HE, Junyu TAO, Jing LENG, Haibo TANG
    2023, 43(6):  647-653.  DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2023.058
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    A large spontaneous mass on the dorsal abdomen near the hip joint was found in an aged female Tupaia belangeri subsp. yaoshanensis after 5 years of routine feeding. The tumor in the diseased tree shrew was huge, with an intact surface and no ulceration; however, it caused inconvenience in movement while maintaining a good mental state. After inhalation anesthesia with isoflurane (2%-4%), the tree shrew was euthanized after the tree shrew entered deep anesthesia. Anatomical dissection of the tumor, the tumor boundary was unclear and infiltrated into surrounding tissues. HE staining showed that small focal pleomorphism and large areas of adipocytes were seen in the tumor tissue. The pleomorphic sarcoma area was mainly composed of atypical epithelioid cells with easily visible nuclear divisions. The size of the adipocytes was significantly different, and more pleomorphic adipocytes were seen. The cell volume was large, the nucleus was deeply stained and deformed, the edge was impressed, and the cytoplasm was seen with multiple vesicular lipid droplets. Immunohistochemical results showed that the tumor cells were positive for Vimentin, the small focal polymorphic adipocyte nucleus was positive for S-100, and Ki-67 exhibited a higher proportion of positivity. Combined with HE staining and immunohistochemical results, the spontaneous tumor in this tree shrew was comprehensively diagnosed as pleomorphic liposarcoma.

    Pathologic Diagnosis of a Pituicytoma in a Han-Wistar Rat
    Minbo HOU, Tiantian CUI, Naying SU, Miaomiao ZHANG, Yongmin JIAO, Jianyan YAN, Xijie WANG, Ohira TOKO
    2023, 43(6):  654-658.  DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2023.064
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    A case of pituicytoma was observed in a Han-Wistar rat from the control group of a 2-year carcinogenicity study. No obvious abnormality were found in clinical observation and necropsy. Hematoxylin and Eosin (HE) staining results showed that nodular hyperplasia in the pars nervosa of the pituitary, which was well demarcated and compressed the adjacent normal tissue. The tumor cells were similar to the glial cells with round or oval nuclei, cytoplasm rich in eosinophilic or vacuole. The tumor cells differentiated well, with no obvious cell pleomorphism and visible mitotic figures. Some tumor cells were arranged in a pseudorosette formation. Immunohistochemical staining (IHC) analysis confirmed positive expression of Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S-100 protein. The tumor was diagnosed as the spontaneous benign pituicytoma combining the HE and IHC staining results.

    Guidelines for Comparative Medical Research and Reporting
    Explanation and Elaboration for the ARRIVE Guidelines 2.0—Reporting Animal Research and In Vivo Experiments (Ⅳ)
    Xiaying LI, Yonglu TIAN, Xiaoyu LIU, Xuancheng LU, Guoyuan CHEN, Xiao LU, Yu BAI, Jing GAO, Yao LI, Yusheng WEI, Wanyong PANG, Yufeng TAO
    2023, 43(6):  659-668.  DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2023.142
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    Improving the reproducibility of biomedical research results is a major challenge.Transparent and accurate reporting of the research process enables readers to evaluate the reliability of the research results and further explore the experiment by repeating it or building upon its findings. The ARRIVE 2.0 guidelines, released in 2019 by the UK National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs), provide a checklist applicable to any in vivo animal research report. These guidelines aim to improve the standardization of experimental design, implementation, and reporting, as well as the reliability, repeatability, and clinical translatability of animal experimental results. The use of ARRIVE 2.0 guidelines not only enriches the details of animal experimental research reports, ensuring that information on animal experimental results is fully evaluated and utilized, but also enables readers to understand the content expressed by the author accurately and clearly, promoting the transparency and integrity of the fundamental research review process. At present, the ARRIVE 2.0 guidelines have been widely adopted by international biomedical journals. This article is a Chinese translation based on the best practices of international journals following the ARRIVE 2.0 guidelines in international journals, specifically for the complete interpretation of the ARRIVE 2.0 guidelines published in the PLoS Biology journal in 2020 (original text can be found at https://arriveguidelines.org). The fourth part of the article includes the items 1-5 of ARRIVE 2.0 Recommended 11 section, which covers "Abstract" "Background" "Objectives" "Ethical statement" and "Housing and husbandry". Its aim is to promote the full understanding and use of the ARRIVE 2.0 guidelines by domestic researchers, enhance the standardization of experimental animal research and reporting, and promote the high-quality development of experimental animal technology and comparative medicine research in China.