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    Explanation and Elaboration for the ARRIVE Guidelines 2.0—Reporting Animal Research and In Vivo Experiments (Ⅰ)
    Jian WANG, Jin LU, Zhengwen MA, Guoyuan CHEN, Xiao LU, Yu BAI, Xiaoyu LIU, Xuancheng LU, Jing GAO, Yao LI, Wanyong Pang
    Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine    2023, 43 (2): 213-224.   DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2023.043
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    Improving the reproducibility of biomedical research results is a major challenge. Researchers reporting their research process transparently and accurately can help readers evaluate the reliability of the research results and further explore the experiment by repeating it or building upon its findings. The ARRIVE 2.0 guidelines, released in 2019 by the UK National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs), provide a checklist applicable to any in vivo animal research report. These guidelines aim to improve the standardization of experimental design, implementation, and reporting, as well as the reliability, repeatability, and clinical translatability of animal experimental results. The use of ARRIVE 2.0 guidelines not only enriches the details of animal experimental research reports, ensuring that information on animal experimental results is fully evaluated and utilized, but also enables readers to understand the content expressed by the author accurately and clearly, promoting the transparency and integrity of the fundamental research review process. At present, the ARRIVE 2.0 guidelines have been widely adopted by international biomedical journals. this article is a Chinese translation based on the best practices of international journals following the ARRIVE 2.0 guidelines in international journals, specifically for the complete interpretation of the ARRIVE 2.0 guidelines published in the PLoS Biology journal in 2020 (original text can be found at https://arriveguidelines.org ). The first part of the article includes the preface and the "Key 10" section, which covers "study design" "sample size" and "inclusion and exclusion criteria". Its aim is to promote the full understanding and use of the ARRIVE 2.0 guidelines by domestic researchers, enhance the standardization of experimental animal research and reporting, and promote the high-quality development of experimental animal technology and comparative medicine research in China.

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    Overview of Studies in Animal Models of Schizophrenia
    Ling HU, Zhibin HU, Yunqing HU, Yuqiang DING
    Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine    2023, 43 (2): 145-155.   DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2022.174
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    Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a highly destructive and complex psychiatric disorder illness, accompanied by a variety of positive and negative symptoms along with cognitive impairment, which brings a heavy social burden. Elucidation of the pathogenesis and therapeutic development is challenging because the complex interplay between genetic risk factors and environmental factors in essential neurodevelopmental processes. Therefore, preparing appropriate animal models can help people better understanding the neurobiological basis of SCZ and provide theoretical basis for finding new treatments. In order to provide reference for the application and improvement of SCZ animal models, this commentary reviewed several main modeling methods for animal models of SCZ, including neurodevelopmental models, drug-induced animal models, and genetic models, and the behavioral evaluation, histological analysis and possible molecular mechanisms of SCZ animal models were also outlined.

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    Advances in Animal Aging Models
    Danyang YIN, Yi HU, Rengfei SHI
    Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine    2023, 43 (2): 156-162.   DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2022.094
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    With the increasing severity of global aging, aging-related issues have become the hotspot in the field of health. In recent years, animal aging models have been widely developed and applied, which is of great significance in the study of aging mechanism. Animals with short life span, such as Caenorhabditis Elegans and Drosophila Melanogaster, have natural advantages in the study of aging. Various rat and mouse aging models have been used in aging studies. In recent years, new animal aging models have been developed, such as the African turquoise killifish. The authors reviewed main animal models used in the study of aging, and analyzed the establishment methods, evaluation indexes, advantages and disadvantages of each model in order to provide reference for related research.

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    Establishment of hKDR +/+ Humanized and Rag1 -/- Gene Knockout Double Genetically Modified Mouse Model
    Susu LIU, Yong WU, Yuan CAO, Haoyang ZHAO, Shijie ZHAI, Xiaowei SUN, Linli LI, Changfa FAN
    Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine    2023, 43 (2): 103-111.   DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2022.154
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    Objective Through improving the potential of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-humanized mouse model (hKDR+/+) with C57BL/6N background to allow the growth of different mouse tumor cell lines, to establish novel tumor-bearing mouse models which can support in vivo tumorigenesis of different mouse tumor cell lines and be used to evaluate drugs targeting VEGFR. Methods Firstly, a method to evaluate the in vivo activity of antibody targeting VEGFR based on the hKDR+/+ humanized mouse model was established. Recombinant activating gene 1 (Rag1) knockout mice (Rag1-/-) were established using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Then these Rag1-/- mice were crossed with hKDR+/+ mice to get a double gene modified homozygous hKDR+/+/Rag1-/- mouse model by screening. Finally, tumor cell lines derived from different mouse strains were tested on the double gene-modified mouse model to compare the differences in tumor growth. Results Antibodies designed for VEGFR showed significant anti-tumor activity in hKDR+/+ mice, which significantly reduced tumor volume and weight compared with the PBS group (P<0.01, P<0.05). The number of B cells and T cells in the peripheral blood of Rag1-/- mice and hKDR+/+/Rag1-/- mice decreased (P<0.05, P<0.001). Tumors were observed in hKDR+/+/Rag1-/-, Rag1-/-, wild-type, and hKDR+/+ mice after 7 d of inoculation of MC38 cells derived from C57BL/6 mice. Tumors were only observed in groups of hKDR+/+/Rag1-/- and Rag1-/- mice, but not in the wild-type and hKDR+/+ mice after 10 d of inoculation with CT26 cells derived from BALB/c mice. After 3 weeks of inoculation, the tumor volume of hKDR+/+/Rag1-/- mice was significantly larger than that of Rag1-/- mice (P<0.01). Conclusion Rag1 knockout mice were obtained and a novel hKDR+/+/Rag1-/- double genes modified mouse model was further screened. The tumor cell lines from different mouse strain origins were more prone to growth in mice with Rag1 gene deficiency. The results suggest that the reduced immune response of hKDR+/+ humanized mice will improve the capacity of supporting the growth of mouse tumor lines in the model. As a result, more tumor-bearing mouse models may be constructed for the evaluation of drugs targeting VEGFR in this way.

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    Evolution and Prospects of Laboratory Animal Management: A Case Study of Shanghai's Development in the Past Decade
    Yong ZHAO
    Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine    2023, 43 (5): 492-503.   DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2023.134
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    There are differences in historical and cultural beliefs, development history, and levels of technological development among different countries and regions around the world. However, they have all established corresponding laboratory animal management systems that are suitable for their national conditions. In 2001, the Ministry of Science and Technology, together with six other ministries, jointly issued the administrative licensing system for experimental animals, which was an innovative measure in China's specialized management system for experimental animals.The State Administration for Market Regulation and the National Standards Committee, based on the welfare of experimental animals and the needs of scientific research, have formulated a series of national standards for laboratory animals, and the local experimental animal management institutions, experimental animal quality testing unit and professional training base have also been established, which provide a strong guarantee for the rapid and healthy development of experimental animal science. This paper reviews the development of experimental animal management in Shanghai in the past ten years, reflects the evolution of national experimental animal management in recent years, points out the weak links in the development process, and puts forward suggestions for the innovation and development of experimental animal work.

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    Analysis on the Development Status of Laboratory Animals in Japan
    Huan GOU, Xinying AN, Yujia TONG, Yan WANG, Shuang YANG
    Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine    2023, 43 (2): 194-204.   DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2022.141
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    Experimental animals have made important contributions to human medical research and life and health. It is known that the development of laboratory animal science in Japan has been relatively rapid in the past few decades, providing important support for the development of the world's experimental animal field. Therefore, it is of great significance to understand the management mode and resource storage situation of Japanese experimental animals, analyze the advantages of Japanese experimental animal development, and propose suggestions to strengthen the high-quality development of experimental animals in China. Through literature research, the authors first analyzed the management system of experimental animals in Japan, including regulations and policies, research funding management, experimental animal management, talent cultivation, and standard and normative systems. Then, the current status of experimental animal research in Japan was summarized, including experimental animal resources, major research institutions, and production enterprises. On this basis, it was found that the field of experimental animal research in Japan currently exhibits characteristics such as a complete policy system, flexible management methods, rich resource reserves, and large-scale industrial development. Finally, by comparing the existing problems in China, suggestions for the development of experimental animal technology in China are proposed: (1) drawing on the legal management method of experimental animals in Japan, strengthening and improving the legislation and management model of experimental animals in China; (2) increaseing investment in scientific research funds, playing the role of research institutions, societies and industries, and promoting the incremental construction and industrial development of experimental animal resources.

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    Revision of Standards for Microbiological and Parasitological Grades in Laboratory Animals and Its Comparison to Foreign Standards
    Lianxiang GUO
    Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine    2023, 43 (4): 339-346.   DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2023.088
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    The national standard, GB 14922-2022 on "Laboratory Animal Microbiological and Parasitical standards and monitoring " was implemented on July 1st, 2023. This article is compiled according to the speech of the 16th East China Laboratory Annual meeting, explores and critically analyzes the developments made to the revised standard and examines how this framework compares with quality control programs of other established international institutions. The key aspects of establishing quality monitoring programs for animal-associated microorganisms in laboratory animal facilities are briefly discussed.

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    Explanation and Elaboration of the ARRIVE Guidelines 2.0—Reporting Animal Research and In Vivo Experiments (Ⅱ)
    Guoyuan CHEN, Xiao LU, Yu BAI, Lingzhi YU, Ying QIAO, Jian WANG, Jin LU, Xiaoyu LIU, Xuancheng LU, Jing GAO, Yao LI, Wanyong PANG
    Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine    2023, 43 (3): 323-331.   DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2023.042
    Abstract247)   HTML28)    PDF (1187KB)(216)       Save

    Improving the reproducibility of biomedical research results remains a major challenge. Transparent and accurate reporting of progress can help readers evaluate the reliability of research results and further explore an experiment by repeating or building upon its findings. The ARRIVE 2.0 guidelines, released in 2019 by the UK National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement, and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs), provide a checklist applicable to any in vivo animal research report. These guidelines aim to improve the standardization of experimental design, implementation, and reporting, as well as the reliability, repeatability, and clinical translatability of animal experimental results. The use of the ARRIVE 2.0 guidelines not only enriches the details of animal experimental research reports, ensuring that information on animal experimental results is fully evaluated and utilized, but also enables readers to understand the content expressed by the author accurately and clearly, promoting the transparency and integrity of the fundamental research review process. At present, the ARRIVE 2.0 guidelines have been widely adopted by international biomedical journals. This article is the second part of the Chinese translation of the complete interpretation of the ARRIVE 2.0 guidelines published in PLoS Biology in 2020 (original text can be found at https://arriveguidelines.org ) and based on the best practices for following the ARRIVE 2.0 guidelines in international journals. This part includes Items 4-7 of "ARRIVE Essential 10" in the ARRIVE 2.0 guidelines: "Randomization", "Blinding", "Outcome Measurement", and "Statistical Methods". Our Chinese translated version aims to promote the full understanding and use of the ARRIVE 2.0 guidelines by domestic researchers, enhancing the standardization of experimental animal research and reporting, and promoting the high-quality development of experimental animal technology and comparative medicine research in China.

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    Physiological Indexes and Histopathology Analysis of Sodium Iodate-Induced Retinitis Pigmentosa in Rats
    Ying TAN, Wenping LIAO, Qilong GAO, Yong LI, Xinhui SHI, Jingkun WANG
    Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine    2023, 43 (2): 124-135.   DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2022.149
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    Objective To evaluate the effects of intraperitoneal injection of sodium iodate on the physiological indexes and retinal histopathological characteristics of SD rats comprehensively. Methods A total of 64 rats were randomly divided into negative control group and model group, half male and half female. The model group was intraperitoneally injected with 6 mg/mL sodium iodate once at the dose of 10 mL/kg and the negative control group was injected with 10 mL/kg 0.9% NaCl once. The body weight of all surviving rats was detected on the day of injection (0 day) and the 2nd, 6th, 9th, 13th, 16th, 20th, 23rd, 27th, 29th, 36th, 43rd, 50th and 57th days after injection. On the 3rd, 7th, 21st, 28th, 41st and 62nd days after injection, the rats were randomly selected (12 rats in each group on the 28th day, and 4 rats in each group at other time points, those in each group were half male and half female) for serum biochemical indexes detection. The organs were dissected and weighed, and then the main organs and tissues were stained with HE, and the eyes were stained with HE and TUNEL. Blood routine indexes were detected on the 28th and 62nd day after injection. Results After injection of sodium iodate, 88% of the rats in the model group had transient loose stools. During the observation period, the body weight of the rats increased slightly and was more obvious in male rats. On the 28th day after injection, compared with the negative control group, the red blood cell volume (RDW) of female rats and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), reticulocyte count (Retic#) and reticulocyte percentage (Retic%) of male rats in the model group increased significantly (all P<0.05). The white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB) and hematocrit (HCT) of male and female rats showed decreasing trends, but there were no significant differences between the two groups (all P >0.05). The thymus weight and coefficient of male rats in the model group were smaller than those in the negative control group except for the 7th day after injection, but there were no significant differences between the two groups (all P >0.05). Histopathological examination showed that the retina of the model group gradually developed from wavy changes to abnormal electrocardiogram (ECG)-like changes, with disordered arrangement of each layer, focal thinning of the outer nuclear layer, and apoptosis of the outer nuclear layer of the retina. The incidence of lesions, lesion score and the number of apoptotic cells in the model group were significantly higher than or more than those in the negative control group at the same time, and the difference between the groups on the 28th day was statistically significant (all P<0.01). Conclusion In addition to retinal degeneration in rats, intraperitoneal injection of sodium iodate also had a certain degree of influence on serum biochemical and blood routine indexes, and also showed a slight slow growth of body weight and transient changes in fecal traits. Therefore, when using this model to evaluate drug safety, the effects of modeling reagents on animals should be paid to attention.

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    Comparative Study on Different Recovery Periods of the Spermatogenic Dysfunction Mouse Model Induced by Cyclophosphamide
    Jingwei MA, Gen LI, Yang YANG, Caixia ZANG, Xiuqi BAO, Dan ZHANG
    Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine    2023, 43 (2): 112-123.   DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2022.167
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    Objective To compare and evaluate the improvement degree of spermatogenic dysfunction mice at different recovery periods after cyclophosphamide modeling. Methods Forty-eight male ICR mice aged 4-5 weeks with the body weight of approximately 18-20 g were randomly divided into three control groups and three model groups, with 8 mice in each group. Each mouse of three model groups was intraperitoneally injected with 60 mg/kg cyclophosphamide continuously from the 1st to 7th day of the experiment, while each mouse of three control groups was intraperitoneally injected with the corresponding volume of normal saline. Then these mice were continued to be fed for another 7, 14 and 21 days after cyclophosphamide injection, respectively. A corresponding control group was set for each model group. The mice in each group were sacrificed after blood collection through orbital veins at corresponding time points. Testis, epididymis and seminal vesicle were taken and weighed, and their reproductive organ indexes were calculated. Histopathological changes of testis and epididymis were compared after HE staining.Sperm quality analysis was used to determine sperm-related indexes. Serum reproductive hormone content, testicular oxidative stress level and testicular signature enzyme activity were detected by ELISA and related kits.Results Compared with the control group, on the 7th, 14th and 21st day after cyclophosphamide treatment, the testicular index of mice in the model group decreased significantly (P<0.01). The epididymis index decreased significantly on the 7th and 14th day, and the seminal vesicle index decreased obviously on the 7th and 21st day (P<0.05). And the histopathological damage of testis and epididymis of the model group gradually alleviated over time. On the 7th and 14th day after cyclophosphamide treatment, the sperm count of the model group declined remarkably (P<0.01), the serum testosterone (T) level reduced (P<0.05), the malonaldehyde (MDA) content of testis increased significantly (P<0.01), the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased obviously (P<0.05),the lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) activity of testis reduced obviously (P<0.05), the gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT) activity increased significantly (P<0.05), the latter two of which are important testicular signature enzymes. Therein on the 7th day after cyclophosphamide treatment, the sperm motility decreased significantly (P<0.001), the rate of sperm malformation increased obviously (P<0.05), the serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) increased notably (P<0.01). Nevertheless on the 21st day after cyclophosphamide treatment, the sperm-related indexes, the content of serum reproductive hormone, the level of testicular oxidative stress and the activity of testicular signature enzyme did not change significantly (P>0.05). Conclusion The reproductive toxicity in mice was more apparent on the 7th day after intraperitoneal injection with 60 mg/kg cyclophosphamide for seven days, at which time the more desirable spermatogenic dysfunction model of mice could be established. However, with the prolongation of the recovery period, the indexes of spermatogenic dysfunction in mice gradually recovered and approached the normal level on the 21st day after cyclophosphamide treatment.

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    Research Progress Report on Microtus fortis as a New Resource of Laboratory Animal
    Jianyun XIE
    Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine    2023, 43 (5): 482-491.   DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2023.114
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    Microtus fortis (reed vole) is the only mammal known to have natural resistance to Schistosomiasis japonica. Originating from schistosomiasis endemic and non-endemic areas, as well as laboratory bred voles have the same resistance to Schistosoma japonicum. After more than 30 years of laboratory cultivation of wild reed vole, a series of progress have been made in laboratory animalization. A detailed study was conducted on biological traits including growth and development, reproductive physiology, serum biochemistry, hematological indicators and tissue anatomy. At the same time, the anti-schistosomiasis characteristics and anti-schistosomiasis mechanisms of Microtus fortis were studied. The closed Dongtinghu population of Microtus fortis (S: DTMF) cultivated by Shanghai Laboratory Animal Research Center was recognized as a Chinese laboratory animal resource by the Experimental Animal Resources and Evaluation Working Committee of the Chinese Association for Laboratory Animal Sciences in 2021. This review focuses on summarizing the research progress in the biological characteristics, standardization research, genome and anti-schistosomiasis mechanism of reed vole in the past decade, especially in the implementation of the key project in the National Science and Technology Pillar Program.

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    Implications on the Development of Animal Disease Models from FDA Modernization Act 2.0
    Yinghan WAN, Yexin GU, Yunong YUAN, Min TANG, Li LU
    Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine    2023, 43 (5): 472-481.   DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2023.083
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    Laboratory animals are the foundational conditions and indispensable technical support in life science research and biomedical industry development. The scientific development of animal models of diseases is of great significance to biomedical research and industrial development. In light of the booming development of multiple emerging in vitro modelling technologies over the past decade, in 2022, the U.S. Senate unanimously passed the bill FDA Modernization Act 2.0. This bill rescinded the requirement for animal testing in investigating the safety and effectiveness of a drug—a federal mandate since 1938, and highlighted the potential of various invitro disease modeling approaches in future biomedical fields. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the latest advances and applications of in vitro disease modeling approaches in academia and industry followed by an interpretation of the FDA bill, namely cell culture, organoid, organ-on-a-chip, 3D bio-printing model and computer-based model. The paper next introduces the crossed applications of various disease models and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each system, thereby providing insights into future trends in the use of animal disease models in China.

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    H1 Linker Histone Gene Regulates Lifespan via Dietary Restriction Pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Hui CHENG, Fei FANG, Jiahao SHI, Hua YANG, Mengjie ZHANG, Ping YANG, Jian FEI
    Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine    2023, 43 (3): 271-281.   DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2022.183
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    Objective To reveal the physiological function of H1 linker histone gene (hil-1) and its molecular mechanism for regulating the lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Methods C. elegans was used as a model organism and hil-1 gene was knock-down, knock-out and over-expressed via RNA interference technology, hil-1(gk229) mutants backcross purification and microinjection technology. Then the survival and oviposition of C. elegans were observed. Physiological tests including heat shock test, paraquat stress test and heavy metal Cr6+ stress test were conducted to evaluate the stress resistance of hil-1 mutants. After constructing a dual mutant nematode, real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to further identify the signaling pathways and target sites associated with hil-1 gene regulatory lifespan. Results Compared with wild-type N2 worms, the lifespan of C. elegans of RNA interference and hil-1(gk229) mutants were significantly shortened (P<0.001), while overexpression of hil-1 in the whole body increased lifespan (P<0.05). The tolerance of hil-1(gk229) mutants to heat stress and oxidative stress was significantly decreased (P<0.001, P<0.05), but the tolerance to heavy metals was not different compared to wild-type N2 worms (P>0.05). In addition, the developmental cycle of hil-1(gk229) mutants was shortened and the time of oviposition was advanced (P<0.001), but there was no significant change in total number of oviposition (P>0.05). After feeding hil-1 RNA interference bacteria to eat-2(ad465) mutants, the down-regulation of hil-1 expression did not affect the lifespan of eat-2(ad465) mutants (P>0.05). Compared with wild-type N2 worms, the expression level of daf-16 in hil-1(gk229) mutants was significantly down-regulated (P<0.001), and the expressions of downstream genes, mtl-1 and ctl-1, were also down-regulated (P<0.05, P<0.001). Compared with daf-2(e1370) mutants, the lifespan of daf-2 (e1370); hil-1(gk229) mutants did not shortened (P>0.05). Compared with daf-16(mu86) mutants, the lifespan of daf-16(mu86); hil-1(gk229) mutants was significantly shortened (P<0.001). The knockdown of hil-1 via RNA interference technology, specifically in epidermis and intestine, was sufficient for lifespan reduction (P<0.001). Conclusion The deletion of hil-1 gene significantly shortened the lifespan of C. elegans and decreased the tolerance to heat and oxidative stress. The hil-1 gene regulates the lifespan of C. elegans via dietary restriction pathway and acts mostly in epidermis and intestine.

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    Microbiological Monitoring Analysis of Laboratory Rats and Mice from Vendors: Department of Laboratory Animal Science of Fudan University as an Example
    Ying HUANG, Siyu WEI, Li CAI, Sujing QIANG, Dongting LI, Yuqiang DING
    Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine    2023, 43 (4): 347-354.   DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2023.060
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    Objective Conduct routine microbiological monitoring of laboratory rats and mice from vendors to provide an important basis for the scientific management of laboratory animal facility and ensure the reliability of relevant experimental data obtained from laboratory animals. Methods Taking the Department of Laboratory Animal Science of Fudan University as an example, between April 2021 and April 2023, rats and mice purchased from 7 vendors were sampled for microbiological quality according to the principle of simple random sampling on the arrival days of animal delivery. Then, surveillance tests were conducted to examine the microbiological contaminations according to the national standards of SPF laboratory animals. Results The total qualified rate was 80.36%, with 52.63% in SD rat, 82.76% in inbred mice, 86.67% in outbred mice and 86.36% in immunodeficient mice in details. The most frequent bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsilla pneumoniae and Rodentibacter heylii, and their detection rates were 10.76%, 3.16%, 2.53% and 0.63%, respectively. Serological assays demonstrated the highest prevalence for virus was Sendai virus, and the detection rate was 2.53%. In addition to the pathogens those must be excluded from SPF rodents, Entamoeba muris and Enterobacter spp. were also detected in inbred mice, and Klebsiella oxytoca was detected in immunodeficient mice, with the detection rates of 1.15%, 2.30% and 4.55%, respectively. Conclusion There are certain incidences of pathogen infections in laboratory rats and mice from vendors, and an efficient microbiological monitoring of laboratory animals should be implemented in animal facilities, in order to eliminate pathogen infections in laboratory animals, which is required for improving the accuracy of research results and protecting the occupational health of laboratory animal practitioners as well.

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    Recent Advances of Animal Models of Renal Interstitial Fibrosis
    Can LAI, Lele LI, Tala HU, Yan MENG
    Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine    2023, 43 (2): 163-172.   DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2022.171
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    Renal interstitial fibrosis is a common pathway in the progression of many renal diseases. Whether it is chronic kidney disease or acute kidney injury that cannot be fully recovered, the progression process mostly enters end-stage renal failure after renal interstitial fibrosis. The animal model of renal interstitial fibrosis is an important research tool for exploring the pathogenesis of renal interstitial fibrosis and new diagnostic and treatment methods. Different animal models have their own characteristics. Researchers can establish different models based on their own experience and experimental purposes, and carry out scientific research on this basis to provide more new methods for the prevention and treatment of kidney diseases. The authors focused on several common animal models of renal interstitial fibrosis to provide the reference for related researchers, including surgical models induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction, ischemia-reperfusion injury, 5/6 nephrectomy, and microembolization; chemical models induced by cyclosporine A, adriamycin, aristolochic acid, mercuric chloride(HgCl2), gentamicin, cisplatin, and adenine; transgenic hybridization and kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) induced transgenic modification model; composite model induced by bilateral ischemia-reperfusion injury (BIRI) combined with gentamicin, unilateral nephrectomy combined with angiotensin II (Ang II), and unilateral ischemia-reperfusion injury (UIRI) combined with pLVX-shTNC plasmid.

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    Injurious Effect of Cisplatin on the Function of Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal/gonadal Axis in Mice and the Intervention Effect of Dehydroepiandrosterone
    Zhiqiang PAN, Zixin NONG, Haina XIE, Peike PENG
    Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine    2023, 43 (3): 229-242.   DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2022.182
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    Objective To study the pathway of cis-dichlorodiamineplatinum (DDP) inhibiting the synthesis of steroid hormones in mice, and to observe the intervention effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Methods Sixty adult ICR mice were randomly divided into three groups: control group, DDP modeling group, and DHEA group, with 10 male and 10 female mice in each group. The DDP modeling group mice were intraperitoneally injected with DDP solution at a dose of 2.5 mg·kg-1·d-1, once every 3 days, a total of 7 times. On the same day of modeling, the control group mice were injected with an equal amount of physiological saline intraperitoneally. The DEHA treatment group mice were treated with DDP and given a dose of 8.3 mg·kg-1·d -1 of DHEA by gavage for 21 consecutive days. The changes of fatigue indexes of mice were observed by open field, grip and rod rotation tests. The morphology changes of adrenal gland, testicular and ovarian tissue were observed by pathological section and HE staining. The levels of serum steroid hormones were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The mRNA and protein expression levels of the related genes of the hypothalamus, hypophysis, adrenal, testis and ovary were tested by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and Western blotting. Results Compared with control group, both male and female mice in DDP modeling group were significantly losing weight (P<0.05), their abilities in horizontal movement and vertical movement decreased (all P<0.05), and the stay time and grip also significantly decreased (all P<0.05) in female mice. Indexes of fatigue were improved after DHEA supplement (all P<0.05). In the DDP modeling group, the arrangement of spermatogenic cells at all levels in the testicular tissue was disordered and the testicular interstitial edema was observed, and a large number of primordial follicles in the ovarian tissue were activated, the number of atresia follicles increased, and the number of granulosa cells in the follicles decreased; while in the DHEA group, the damaged phenotype of testicles and ovaries was significantly improved. Compared with control group, the levels of serum testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in both male and female DDP modeling mice significantly decreased (P<0.01), the pregnenolone was down-regulated but corticosterone was up-regulated significantly (P<0.05) in male mice, the corticosterone was down-regulated significantly (P<0.05) in female mice. Compared with the DDP group, after DHEA supplement, the pregnenolone in male mice and the progesterone in female mice increased significantly (P<0.05), but the pregnenolone in female mice and the progesterone in male mice decreased significantly (P<0.05). Compared with control group, the expression levels of Cyp21a1 and Cyp11a1 genes in the adrenal gland and Gnrh gene in the hypothalamus of male and female mice in the DDP modeling group significantly decreased (all P<0.05); the expression levels of Hsd3b2 gene in the adrenal gland, Star, Cyp11a1, and Lhr genes in the ovaries, Crh, Pomc, and Lhb genes in the hypothalamus, pituitary, and pituitary of female mice significantly decreased (all P<0.05); the expression levels of Star gene and StAR protein in the testicles of male mice, as well as Fshb and Lhb genes in the pituitary gland, were significantly down-regulated (all P<0.05). After DHEA supplement, compared with the DDP modeling group, the mRNA expression levels of Cyp17a1 in the adrenal gland of male mice and Cyp17a1, Lhr and Fshr genes in testis were down-regulated significantly (P<0.05); the expression level of Cyp11a1 gene in the adrenal gland of female mice was also decreased (P<0.05); while the expression levels of Hsd3b2 gene in the adrenal gland, Star, Cyp11a1, Hsd3b2 and Lhr gene in the ovary, and Lhb gene in the pituitary gland were all up-regulated ( P<0.05). Conclusion The function of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal/gonadal axis was inhibited by DDP intermittent injection, especially in female. Supplementation of DHEA can help regulate the homeostasis of steroid hormone levels.

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    Explanation and Elaboration for the ARRIVE Guidelines 2.0—Reporting Animal Research and In Vivo Experiments (Ⅲ)
    Xiaoyu LIU, Xuancheng LU, Xiaomeng SHI, Yuzhou ZHANG, Chao LÜ, Guoyuan CHEN, Xiao LU, Yu BAI, Jing GAO, Yao LI, Yonggang LIU, Yufeng TAO, Wanyong PANG
    Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine    2023, 43 (4): 446-456.   DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2023.039
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    Improving the reproducibility of biomedical research results is a major challenge.Researchers reporting their research process transparently and accurately can help readers evaluate the reliability of the research results and further explore the experiment by repeating it or building upon its findings. The ARRIVE 2.0 guidelines, released in 2019 by the UK National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs), provide a checklist applicable to any in vivo animal research report. These guidelines aim to improve the standardization of experimental design, implementation, and reporting, as well as the reliability, repeatability, and clinical translatability of animal experimental results. The use of ARRIVE 2.0 guidelines not only enriches the details of animal experimental research reports, ensuring that information on animal experimental results is fully evaluated and utilized, but also enables readers to understand the content expressed by the author accurately and clearly, promoting the transparency and integrity of the fundamental research review process. At present, the ARRIVE 2.0 guidelines have been widely adopted by international biomedical journals. This article is a Chinese translation based on the best practices of international journals following the ARRIVE 2.0 guidelines in international journals, specifically for the complete interpretation of the ARRIVE 2.0 guidelines published in the PLoS Biology journal in 2020 (original text can be found at https://arriveguidelines.org ). The third part of the article includes the items 8-10 of ARRIVE 2.0 Essential 10, which covers "experimental animals" "experimental procedures" and "results". Its aim is to promote the full understanding and use of the ARRIVE 2.0 guidelines by domestic researchers, enhance the standardization of experimental animal research and reporting, and promote the high-quality development of experimental animal technology and comparative medicine research in China.

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    An Optimized Experimental Zebrafish Breeding Scheme for Significantly Enhancing Reproductive Efficiency and Service Life
    Shirong JIN, Ye HUA, Huaxing ZI, Xufei DU, Jiwen BU
    Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine    2023, 43 (3): 297-306.   DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2023.004
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    Objective To solve the problems of delayed growth and development and insufficient spawning of experimental Zebrafish, so as to improve the reproductive efficiency and service life of experimental Zebrafish. Methods The zebrafish at the age of 2 months after fertilization were divided into two groups. The experimental group was fed with dry commercial diets specifically designed for ornamental fish or frozen adult brine shrimp, while control group was fed with live laval brine shrimp. Within a period of 70 days, the growth performance of the zebrafish was evaluated by measuring body length and weight, and the reproductive performance was assessed by measuring the fecundity and spawning rate. Zebrafish with apparent goiter disease were fed with dry commercial diets, and the inhibitory effect of the pellets on this disease was evaluated by measuring the diameter of the thyroid enlargement lesion. The three feeding methods were combined, and the feeding plan was optimized. The actual effects of the plan on zebrafish rearing were validated through reproductive performance tests. Results Starting from 60 days post-fertilization (dpf) until 111 dpf, the body length and weight of the dry commercial diets feed group gradually surpassed those of control group (all P<0.000 1). From 60 dpf to 96 dpf, the growth trend in body length of the adult brine shrimp group was similar to that of control group, but the female fish in the adult brine shrimp group had significantly higher body weight than the female fish in control group at 75-82 dpf (P<0.000 1). Compared to control group, there was a significant difference in body color between males and females in the adult brine shrimp group, and at 75 dpf, gender could be accurately distinguished by body color differences. Furthermore, the spawning rate of the zebrafish in the adult brine shrimp group at 3 months of age was significantly higher than that of control group (94.44% vs. 27.78%, P<0.05). Additionally, after feeding with the dry commercial diets for 130 days, all thyroid enlargement lesions in the experimental zebrafish disappeared. Based on the above results, the three feeding methods were combined and the feeding plan for zebrafish older than 2 months of age was optimized as follows: feed live brine shrimp in the morning, and alternate between dry commercial diets and adult brine shrimp in the afternoon. This feeding plan lasts until the age of 12 months. The spawning rate of Zebrafish can maintan 70%, and the spawning amount can reach (233.6±3.95) eggs. The fertilization rate and hatching rate were 97.47% and 90.24%, respectively, both significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.001, or P=0.01). Conclusion Compared to live brine shrimp feed, the dry commercial diets feed significantly improves the growth performance of zebrafish and has a therapeutic effect on thyroid enlargement disease. On the other hand, adult brine shrimp feed significantly enhances the early reproductive performance of zebrafish. The optimized feeding plan successfully improves the spawning efficiency of laboratory zebrafish, prolonging their reproductive lifespan and better supporting relevant scientific research.

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    Prevalence of Mouse Norovirus in Experimental Mice in Beijing
    Fangni LIU, Junping LU, Yuehua KE, Changjun WANG, Jinpeng GUO
    Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine    2023, 43 (2): 205-212.   DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2022.126
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    Objective To investigate the infection of mouse norovirus (MNV) in experimental mice raised under natural conditions from 19 biological companies in Beijing. Methods The mice used in this study were randomly selected from mice produced by 19 companies, and 14 mice of each strain and batch were combined into one cage, totaling 1 396 cages of 19 544 mice. The fecal samples from BALB/c, C57BL/6, ICR, KM, and BALB/c-nude mice were collected. TaqMan probe fluorescence quantitative PCR method was used to detect MNV infection of mice with MNV-1 primer, and whether the mice were infected with MNV was determined according to cycle threshold (Ct value). The chi-square test was used to analyze the difference of positive rate among the fecal samples from the five types of mice. The Ct values of the positive samples were statistically described; the non-parametric test was used to analyze the differences in Ct values among the five types of mice. Results A total of 1 396 fecal samples were collected. The positive rates of fecal MNV detection in BALB/c, C57BL/6, ICR, KM, and BALB/c-nude mice were 17.65%, 39.33%, 10.57%, 18.32% and 27.4%, respectively. According to the chi-square test results, the positive rate of fecal in C57BL/6 mice was higher than that in BALB/c, ICR, and KM mice (all P<0.05), and the positive rate of BALB/c-nude mice was higher than that in ICR and BALB/c mice (P<0.001, P<0.05) . The viral load of BALB/c-nude or C57BL/6 mice was generally greater than that of KM mice (P<0.05). Conclusion MNV-1 primers can be applied to the detection of MNV infection in mice. The positive rate of MNV in five types of experimental mice in Beijing ranges from 10% to 40%, among which C57BL/6 mice and BALB/c-nude mice have higher positive rates of MNV than the others.

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    Research Progress on Neuroprotective Effects and Mechanisms of Glucagon-like Peptide 1 Analogues in Alzheimer's Disease
    Chenghan MEI, Beibei CHEN
    Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine    2023, 43 (2): 186-193.   DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2022.136
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    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a kind of incretin produced in the intestinal with multiple pharmacological effects, which can stimulate insulin secretion effectively. Various GLP-1 analogues have been widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is closely related to type 2 diabetes mellitus, with some common pathological features, such as insulin resistance, and epidemiological studies also showed that patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have an increased risk of developing AD. GLP-1 analogues have shown beneficial effects in both preclinical animal research and clinical trials of AD. Therefore, the authors summarized the main characteristics of GLP-1 and AD, and analyzed the mechanisms of GLP-1 in preclinical AD studies of animal models. GLP-1 readily crosses the blood-brain barrier and exerts its neuroprotective effects by binding to and activating the widely distributed GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) in the brain, affecting multiple physiological and pathological processes including glucose metabolism, neuroinflammation, mitochondrial function, and cell proliferation. Insulin resistance and inflammation are key common pathways in AD and type 2 diabetes. GLP-1 may exert its neuroprotective effects by improving mitochondrial function and glycolysis, reducing oxidative stress levels, exerting anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects, inducing neurogenesis, and inhibiting glial cell proliferation. This paper maybe provide the reference for further study of GLP-1 analogues in AD, hoping to open new therapy venues for AD patients.

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    Research Progress on Establishing and Evaluation of Acne Animal Models
    Rui ZHANG, Meiyu LÜ, Jianjun ZHANG, Jinlian LIU, Yan CHEN, Zhiqiang HUANG, Yao LIU, Lanhua ZHOU
    Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine    2023, 43 (4): 398-405.   DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2023.021
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    According to understanding of the pathogenesis of acne, scholars have established animal models of acne inflammation, animal models of grafting human skin acne, and natural acne animal models. The acne inflammation model is mainly induced by bacterial infection, chemical drug application, and foreign matter injection. Natural acne animal models include animals that some are sensitivity to hormones and some have clinical symptoms of acne. It is necessary to select appropriate model animals and replicate model methods for the development of acne intervention products with different degrees and mechanisms. At present, there are only human evaluation standards of acne health functions in China, but no animal evaluation standards, which has affected the in-depth study of the pathogenesis of acne as well as the research and development progress of acne products. This article summarizes the conditions for the occurrence of acne, the characteristics of human skin, the bidirectional effect of Cutibacterium acnes on human skin, acne animal models, and commonly used observation and evaluation indicators, providing the reference for studying the pathogenesis of acne, promoting acne treatment and health care, and developing treatment products.

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    Repairing Effects of Ginsenoside Rg1 on Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice
    Wenwen GUO, Ya ZHAO, Yinghua WANG, Ke LIU, Xu GE, Yanying ZHANG, Yongfeng WANG, Changhong SHI
    Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine    2023, 43 (3): 243-252.   DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2022.187
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    Objective To explore the effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on blood-brain barrier, neuroinflammation and behavioral function of traumatic brain injury (TBI) mouse model. Methods The experiment was divided into two parts. In the first part, 27 SPF male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into blank group, sham operation group and TBI model group, with 9 mice in each group. TBI model group was made by controlled cortical impact (CCI) after craniotomy, while sham operation group was only performed craniotomy without any treatment, and the blank group was not treated at all. The effect of modeling was evaluated after operation. In the second part, 50 male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into sham operation group, three different drug dosage groups and solvent (DMSO) control group, with 8 mice in each group. The drug treatment groups were injected with ginsenoside Rg1 at the doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg respectively 6 hours after TBI model had been successfully established, while the DMSO control group was given the same amount of 1% DMSO for one week, twice a day. Modified neurological severity scores (mNSS) were performed on the 1st, 3rd, 7th and 14th day after modeling, and the blood-brain barrier leakage was detected by Western blotting on the 3rd day after modeling. On the 14th and 16th day, the elevated cross maze test and water maze test were used to detect the neurobehavioral function. On the 28th day after anesthesia and perfusion, the brains were taken out, and the neuroinflammation such as activation of microglia and astrocytes was observed by immunofluorescence staining. Results The expression level of MMP-9, a marker of blood-brain barrier, decreased in ginsenoside Rg1 treatment group (P<0.01). The number of microglia (Iba-1 positive) and astrocyte (GFAP positive) cells decreased significantly (P<0.05), which indicated that neuroinflammation was inhibited, and the best effect was achieved at the dosage of 20 mg/kg (P<0.01). The mNSS of mice in ginsenoside Rg1 treatment group were significantly lower than those in DMSO control group (P < 0.01), and the proportion of times they entered the open arm was significantly higher than that in DMSO control group (P < 0.05). The time ratio in the quadrant where the water maze experimental platform was located and the times of crossing the platform were significantly higher than those in control group (P < 0.05), and the dosage of 20 mg/kg had the best effect. Conclusion The TBI mouse model was successfully constructed and applied to the study of ginsenoside Rg1 repair of mouse traumatic brain injury. Ginsenoside Rg1 can significantly improve blood-brain barrier, alleviate neuroinflammation and improve neurobehavioral function in TBI model mice, and the effect is the most significant at the dose of 20 mg/kg.

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    Research Progress of Animal Models of Stress Cardiomyopathy
    Haosheng WU, Hang SU, Chao ZHU, Wenhui WANG, Shengbing WU, Shuai CUI, Meiqi ZHOU
    Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine    2023, 43 (2): 173-179.   DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2022.102
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    Stress cardiomyopathy (SC) is an acute cardiomyopathy caused by intense mental stimulation or physical stress. Currently, few interventions are effective in reducing mortality, improving prognosis, or preventing recurrence in acute or chronic stages of SC. Therefore, it is particularly important to establish a reliable and effective SC animal model to study the pathogenesis and prevention of SC. In this paper, the preparation methods and evaluation indexes of SC models at home and abroad were reviewed, including the operation details of catecholamine hormone injection method, binding method, binding combined with electroshock method, binding combined with dehydration method, vagus nerve electrical stimulation and other modeling methods, as well as evaluation indexes such as open field test, cardiac ultrasound, electrocardiogram and ELISA, striving to provide useful reference for model selection and establishment of SC research.

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    Research Progress on Influenza A Virus and Nervous System Disease of Human and Experimental Animals
    Xiangrong DING, Shurui HUO, Jiejie DAI
    Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine    2023, 43 (2): 180-185.   DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2022.142
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    Influenza is a highly contagious disease that mainly affects the respiratory system and often leads to lung complications. Also it can cause a variety of very rare and serious neurological complications, including Guillain-Barre syndrome, transverse myelitis, meningoencephalitis and others. In recent years, neurological complications caused by influenza A virus have been reported in many countries and regions, and gradually attracted international attention. However, the pathogenesis of this complication remains unclear, and there are few related cases and animal experimental studies,and no specific treatment. Therefore, the authors summarized the study of neurological complications caused by influenza A virus in human and laboratory animals, in order to have a comprehensive understanding of the neurological diseases caused by influenza A virus.

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    Downregulation of Micall2a Gene Expression Inhibited Vascular Development in Zebrafish
    Jinxian YANG, Shujuan WANG, Jinyun ZHAI, Shunxing ZHU
    Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine    2023, 43 (3): 282-287.   DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2022.166
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    Objective To explore the expression pattern of Micall2a gene during the early development of zebrafish embryos and the effect of this gene on zebrafish vascular development. Methods Whole embryo in situ hybridization was used to detect Micall2a expression levels at different stages of early embryo development of Tg (fli:GFP) transgenic (labeled with green fluorescent protein) and wild type zebrafish (AB). Micall2a gene expression was downregulated by microinjection of a morpholine antisense oligonucleotide, and real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR was used to detect mRNA expression of the gene at different developmental stages of zebrafish embryos. Laser confocal microscopy was used to observe and analyze vascular phenotypic changes in zebrafish after the downregulation of Micall2a. Results Micall2a was expressed in the brain, heart, and vascular system of zebrafish embryos at the 24th, 36th, and 48th hours post fertilization. The mRNA level of Micall2a increased after microinjection of morpholine antisense oligonucleotides, inhibiting vascular development in zebrafish embryos, resulting in internode angiogenesis defects in zebrafish. Conclusion Downregulation of Micall2a expression inhibits the development of blood vessels in zebrafish.

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    Effects of Pogostemon cablin on Serum Metabolomiceof Guizhou Miniature Pigs and It's mechanism
    Taofeng LU, Hui ZHANG, Jie ZHOU, Qian LI, Shuguang WU, Yanjun WU
    Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine    2023, 43 (3): 253-261.   DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2022.186
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    Objective Based on the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectormetry (LC-MS/MS), to study the effects of Pogostemon cablin on serum metabolism of Guizhou miniature pigs, and to explore its pharmacological mechanism. Methods Nine healthy Guizhou miniature pigs were divided into two groups, namely Pogostemon cablin drug group (n=5) and control group (n=4). The pigs in Pogostemon cablin drug group were orally fed with traditional Chinese medicine formula granules, each 0.5 g per day, for consecutive 8 days, while those in control group were given normal feeding without additional treatment. After the feeding experiment, serum samples were collected and analyzed using the LC-MS/MS technology. The metabolomics data was annotated and compared with KEGG, HMDB and Lipidmaps databases. Bioinformatics analysis methods including partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), intergroup clustering, differential metabolite analysis and functional enrichment were used to screen differential metabolic biomarkers and their possible metabolic pathways. Results Forty-four differential metabolites (P<0.05) were screened out from the 443 metabolites, eight differential metabolites were significantly up-regulated (P<0.01), namely cinnamoylglycine, N-benzyl-N-isopropyl-N'-[4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenyl]urea, hypotaurine, D-glucose 6-phosphate, cis-2-decenoic acid, 11(Z),14(Z)-eicosadienoic acid, prostaglandin A2 and 10-hydroxydecanoic acid, and three differential metabolites were significantly down-regulated (P<0.01), namely lysophosphatidyl choline 22:5, lysophosphatidic acid 22:6 and lysophosphatidic acid 22:5. The differential metabolites were mainly enriched in the metabolic pathways of alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism (MapID: map00250) and taurine and hypotaurine metabolism (MapID: map00430). Conclusion Pogostemon cablin can significantly affect the metabolism of lysophosphatidic acids in porcine, and relieve the disorder of amino acids metabolism and regulate the occurrence of inflammation by affecting the metabolic pathways of alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism and taurine and hypotaurine metabolism.

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    Advances and Applications in Animal Models of Neuroblastoma
    Zhigang TAN, Jinxin LIU, Chuya ZHENG, Wenfeng LIAO, Luping FENG, Hongli PENG, Xiu YAN, Zhenjian ZHUO
    Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine    2023, 43 (3): 288-296.   DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2022.194
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    Neuroblastoma (NB) is one of the most common malignant solid tumors in children, ranks fourth in the incidence of pediatric tumors, and accounts for 15% of pediatric tumor deaths in children in China. Despite the development of new treatment options, the prognosis for high-risk patients is still poor. An animal model that can replicate the tumorigenesis of NB is an important tool for the prevention and treatment of NB. However, there are currently no animal models that can simulate all features of human NB. To provide a reference for the construction of animal models and treatment of NB, this article introduced several animal models of NB that have been extensively researched: the mouse, chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane, and zebrafish models. At the same time, it elaborated on the species, construction methods, characteristics, advantages and disadvantages, and research progress in NB.

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    Analysis of Common Types and Construction Elements of Diabetic Mouse Models
    Xue WANG, Yonghe HU
    Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine    2023, 43 (4): 415-421.   DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2023.031
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    Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by absolute or relative lack of insulin, which leads to hyperglycemia, and its high mobidity and complications have a great impact on the lives of patients. Animal models are widely used to study the pathogenesis and treatment of diabetes and its complications. Different types of diabetes, with different pathogenesis and pathognomonic features, have different treatment options. In animal experimental, in addition to considering the genetic factors and physiological characteristics of the animal (such as sex and age), it is also necessary to consider the experimental protocol and various response options, which have a great impact on the experimental data, the reproducibility and stability of the experimental results. Therefore, it is necessary to select suitable animal models for experiments in the study of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is characterized by absolute insulin deficiency, and existing mouse models of type 1 diabetes include chemically (STZ-induced) induced and spontaneous diabetes model (NOD mice), etc. Type 2 diabetes, characterized by insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance, is established in both obese and non-obese animal models, including diet-induced (high-fat diet induced), spontaneous diabetes (including monogenic and polygenic obese mice) models, and genetically modified mouse models. In this review, we discussed the common types of diabetic mouse models and analyzed the elements of their construction, the key factors that should be considered in the selection of diabetic mouse models, and explore the impact of these factors on the research of diabetes.

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    Influence of Corneal Staining in Rabbits on the Evaluation of Eye Irritation Test Results
    Honghua XU, Tian JIN, Hai WANG, Mengying SHEN, Rui WANG, Yijia ZHOU, Ying TAN
    Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine    2023, 43 (3): 307-313.   DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2022.169
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    Objective To observe the influence of the staining phenomenon after fluorescein sodium staining on eye irritation in normal rabbits. Methods In the experimental rabbit eye irritation test conducted with sodium chloride eye drops, Siwei Zhenceng Bingpeng eye drops, sodium hyaluronate eye drops, sodium cromoglycate eye drops, and compound aspartate eye drops (4 in each group, half male and half female), the left eyes of rabbits were administered normal saline (self-negative control) and the right eyes were administered the experimental medicine; the eyes were stained with 1% sodium fluorescein, and eye irritation was observed and scored using slit lamp microscope for 31 days. Morphological changes of corneal epithelial staining were recorded and the incidence of staining was calculated. After the observation, the eyeballs and Hasselblad glands were examined histopathologically, and the staining rate of the left eye was compared with that of the right eye which was administered the corresponding medicine. Results Neither eye had any irritation symptoms; the scores were 0, and the total incidences of corneal staining were 3% (left) and 1% (right), respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). Corneal epithelial staining showed single-spot staining, scattered dot, localized, or large areas of fusion staining. No histopathological changes were found in the eyeballs or Hasselblad glands, and the results were evaluated as non-irritative. Conclusion The irregularity of corneal epithelial staining in rabbits did not influence the results of the ocular irritation test.

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    Quantification of Uric Acid of Rat Serum by Liquid Chromatography-ultraviolet Detection and Its Comparison Study
    Ziyin XIA, Yuanyuan CHAI, Yunxia XU, Qinwei YU, Xin HUANG, Luyong ZHANG, Zhenzhou JIANG
    Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine    2023, 43 (3): 314-322.   DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2022.189
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    Objective To establish a more accurate and sensitive liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (LC-UV) method for the determination of uric acid in rat serum, and compare the results with those of commercial kits, providing a new method for the accurate determination of uric acid in the rat hyperuricemia model induced by potassium oxonate. Methods A hyperuricemia model was established by intraperitoneal injection of potassium oxonate (300 mg/kg) into SPF-grade male SD rats, and the control group was administered an equal amount of 0.5% sodium carboxymethylcellulose solution. Blood samples were collected from the posterior orbital venous plexus and centrifuged to obtain serum samples. After precipitation with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid-acetonitrile (containing the internal standard 3,4-dihydroxybenzylamine hydrobromide), the supernatant was injected for analysis. Uric acid was separated on a Waters XBridge HILIC column (150 mm×4.6 mm, 3.5 μm) using acetonitrile (containing 0.5% formic acid and 2 mmol/mL ammonium formate) as the organic phase and methanol solution (methanol∶water=1∶1, containing 0.5% formic acid with 2 mmol/L ammonium formate) as the aqueous phase for isocratic elution and detection at 290 nm. Serum samples treated with activated carbon were used as substitute matrices for the methodological verification. Serum uric acid levels in rats with potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemia were measured using the established LC-UV method and commercially available kits (uricase and phosphotungstic acid methods), and the accuracies of the three methods were compared. Results Serum uric acid showed a good linear relationship (R>0.999) at mass concentration of 10–200 μg/mL in rats, the lower limit of quantification was 10 μg/mL, the accuracy ranged from -2.17% to 2.21%, the intra-batch precision ranged from 0.52% to 1.95%, the inter-batch precision ranged from 3.04% to 4.90%, and the extraction recovery ranged from 83.12% to 89.91%. In the rat model, the results obtained using the commercially available phosphotungstic acid method kit were significantly higher than those of the LC-UV method, and those obtained using the commercially available uricase method kit were significantly lower than those of the LC-UV method, but the LC-UV method showed the best recovery of the spiked sample (95.90%–99.96%). Conclusion The LC-UV method developed in this study can determine the concentration of uric acid in rat serum with higher accuracy than commercially available kits and is recommended for the determination of serum uric acid in the rat model of hyperuricemia induced by potassium oxonate.

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    Generation of 12 Drosophila Transgenic Negative Control Lines Based on Site-specific ΦC31 Integrase and pUASTattB Vector
    Longmei XU, Ruling SHEN, Chun FAN, Wei WU
    Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine    2023, 43 (5): 541-547.   DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2023.100
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    Objective Construction of a negative control line for the Drosophila transgenic system based on ΦC31 integrase and vector plasmid pUASTattB to provide a more scientific negative control for transgenic Drosophila research experiments. Methods The vector plasmid pUASTattB was microinjected into four different genetic backgrounds Drosophila lines attP-25C6, attP-68A4, attP-75B1 and attP-86F8 embryos carrying ΦC31 integrase. All of the injected embryos were incubuated to get G0 adults, and each of them was crossed with balancer stock ywR13S separately in a single vial (1 adult of the G0 generation and 3 of the ywR13S in each vial). The probability of successful insertion was calculated by observing the colour of the compound eyes of the G1 generation of Drosophila to determine whether there was a mini-White insertion. The G1 generation Drosophila adults successfully inserted into mini-White were then selected to make single-vial crosses (one G1 generation male Drosophila crossed with three virgins of balancer Drosophila line) with each of the three balancer Drosophila strains DB, ywR13S and yw122, respectively, for balanced seed preservation. The genomic DNA of the conserved Drosophila lines was extracted and the vector plasmid pUASTattB was identified for transfer by PCR. Results 12 Drosophila strains were obtained, all of which were red-eyedDrosophila melanogaster carrying the mini-White marker, and were identified by PCR as having the pUASTattB sequence insertion. Conclusion The 12 transgenic Drosophila strains can meet the negative control requirements for the transgenic fly research experiments that constructed with pUASTattB as the vector basically, enriching the Drosophila resources in the National Drosophila Resource Center of China.

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    Animal Models of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension and Their Application in Drug Research
    Jiahui YU, Qian GONG, Lenan ZHUANG
    Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine    2023, 43 (4): 381-397.   DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2023.048
    Abstract119)   HTML13)    PDF (1028KB)(93)       Save

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a clinical syndrome characterized by pulmonary vascular remodeling causing increased vascular resistance, which will lead to right heart failure and even death if left untreated. The pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension has not yet been clarified, and clinical treatments have not been effective in improving prognosis or reducing mortality. To investigate the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension and to develop and evaluate more effective and safer drug treatments, establishing related animal disease models is very important. This paper outlines the pathological characteristics of pulmonary arterial hypertension and summarizes the various types of animal models of pulmonary arterial hypertension, as well as describes the progress of the application of these models in three therapeutic pathways and related drug research in the past five years, with a view to providing a reference for the selection of animal models of pulmonary arterial hypertension and research applications.

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    Creation and Analysis of Related Genetic Characteristics of BALB/cA.Cg.SHJH hr Mice
    Xiaoqian TAN, Hao YANG, Huiqing TANG, Wei QU, Liang LI, Zhen QIAN, Jianzhong GU, Ping XU, Junhua XIAO
    Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine    2023, 43 (4): 363-370.   DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2023.055
    Abstract117)   HTML27)    PDF (1768KB)(60)       Save

    Objective To introduce the Hr gene of spontaneously mutated SHJH hr mice into BALB/cAShjh inbred mice with clear genetic background,and provide a basis for study on the molecular mechanism of Hr gene mutation-induced abnormal phenotype and the application of this model. Methods Using a backcross-intercross breeding method guided by phenotypic monitoring, mutant genes from SHJH hr mice bred by spontaneous mutation were introduced into inbred BALB/cAShjh mice by homozygous mutation introgression, and the mice were bred into BALB/cA.Cg.SHJH hr (abbreviated as C.Cg.SHJH hr ) mice after 10 generations. The genotypes of 90 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection sites were analyzed in C.Cg.SHJH hr mice by multiplex PCR library construction followed by next generation sequencing. Then 14 biochemical locus marker genes were detected in C.Cg.SHJH hr mice according to the method of GB/T 14927.1-2008. Finally, whole genome exon sequencing was utilized to detect the mutated genes in this mouse. Results From May 2018 to March 2022, a total of 10 generations of backcross-intercross were conducted to complete the construction of the C.Cg.SHJH hr mouse line. Among the 90 SNPs loci detected, except for rs13484115 and rs13484116, all the other loci had the same genotype as the recipient mice BALB/cAShjh. The results of biochemical marker gene detection showed that all the 14 loci of the mouse were the same as those of the recipient mouse. Whole genome exon sequencing found that the mouse had 109 site mutations compared with the recipient mouse strain, including 71 synonymous mutations, 1 stopgain, 37 missense mutations, and 20 genes involved in protein sequence alterations (including the reported Hr gene). Conclusion C.Cg.SHJH hr mice were created. Through exon sequencing and genetic analysis, three Hr mutated genes and associated mutated genes that mainly cause phenotypic variations were identified, which provides a basis for expanding the application of C.Cg.SHJH hr mice in biomedical research.

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    Analysis of the Birthing Behaviour of Cynomolgus Macaques
    Xinyan BIAN, Yong LU, Yan WANG, Qiang SUN
    Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine    2023, 43 (4): 355-362.   DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2023.086
    Abstract114)   HTML15)    PDF (1036KB)(91)       Save

    Objective Observing and analyzing the delivery behaviour of cynomolgus macaques, to establish the criteria for determining the occurrence of delivery in cynomolgus macaques, and then combining with veterinary assistance in order to improve the live birth rate of cynomolgus macaques. Methods By backtracking and analyzing the surveillance videos of 112 perinatal cynomolgus macaques with a gestation period of 140 d or more from 2017 to 2021, we observed and recorded the main behavioural manifestations of the cynomolgus macaques during labour, including Valsalva's maneuver, touching and licking the birth canal, lying on their backs or stomachs, and rolling and tumbling of the body. On this basis, we established the weights of delivery-related behavioural indicators and exhaustively analysed the perinatal behavioural performances of 30 cynomolgus macaques for delivery determination. Results The perinatal behavioural validation results of the 30 cynomolgus macaques showed that the behavioural indicators of Valsalva's maneuver, touching and licking the birth canal, lying on the stomach or on the floor, body rolling and tumbling occurred with different frequencies, among which Valsalva's maneuver and lying on the stomach or on the back were the most important, with weight values of 35.5% and 27.2%, respectively. These two behaviours can be used to accurately determine the onset of parturition in cynomolgus macaques. The average live birth rate of the monkeys that were accurately determined to have given birth and were assisted by veterinarians reached 87.1%, which was significantly higher than that of the monkeys that had unassisted spontaneous deliveries, which was 63.5%, and there was a significant difference between these two rates (P<0.05). Conclusion The combination of accurate birth determination and veterinary assisted delivery can significantly increase the live birth rate of experimental cynomolgus macaques.

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    Progress in Establishment and Application of Laboratory Animal Models Related to Development of Male Infertility Drugs
    Shuwu XIE, Ruling SHEN, Jinxing LIN, Chun FAN
    Laboratory Animal and Comparative Medicine    2023, 43 (5): 504-511.   DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2023.120
    Abstract114)   HTML141)    PDF (853KB)(79)       Save

    As the incidence of male infertility has been increasing during recent years, it is urgent to reveal the pathogenesis of male infertility, as well as to develop the new drugs for treatment of male infertility, in order to solve the declining birth rate and aging problems. The construction and application of male infertile animal models is critical for drug development, which plays an important role in accurately evaluating the efficacy and mechanism of infertility treatment. A suitable infertility model not only can reduce the repeated drug efficacy evaluations, reduce animal usage and the cost of new drug development, but also has important reference value for subsequent clinical trial research. Male infertility laboratory animal models can be constructed through chemical, physical, endocrine, environmental estrogen, gene modification, and immune methods. This article mainly introduces the existing male infertility animal models available for drug development, and briefly introduces the application progress of each model to provide reference for the male infertility drug researchers.

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