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    25 August 2023, Volume 43 Issue 4
    Excellent Papers at the East China Conference
    Revision of Standards for Microbiological and Parasitological Grades in Laboratory Animals and Its Comparison to Foreign Standards
    Lianxiang GUO
    2023, 43(4):  339-346.  DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2023.088
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    The national standard, GB 14922-2022 on "Laboratory Animal Microbiological and Parasitical standards and monitoring " was implemented on July 1st, 2023. This article is compiled according to the speech of the 16th East China Laboratory Annual meeting, explores and critically analyzes the developments made to the revised standard and examines how this framework compares with quality control programs of other established international institutions. The key aspects of establishing quality monitoring programs for animal-associated microorganisms in laboratory animal facilities are briefly discussed.

    Microbiological Monitoring Analysis of Laboratory Rats and Mice from Vendors: Department of Laboratory Animal Science of Fudan University as an Example
    Ying HUANG, Siyu WEI, Li CAI, Sujing QIANG, Dongting LI, Yuqiang DING
    2023, 43(4):  347-354.  DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2023.060
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    Objective Conduct routine microbiological monitoring of laboratory rats and mice from vendors to provide an important basis for the scientific management of laboratory animal facility and ensure the reliability of relevant experimental data obtained from laboratory animals. Methods Taking the Department of Laboratory Animal Science of Fudan University as an example, between April 2021 and April 2023, rats and mice purchased from 7 vendors were sampled for microbiological quality according to the principle of simple random sampling on the arrival days of animal delivery. Then, surveillance tests were conducted to examine the microbiological contaminations according to the national standards of SPF laboratory animals. Results The total qualified rate was 80.36%, with 52.63% in SD rat, 82.76% in inbred mice, 86.67% in outbred mice and 86.36% in immunodeficient mice in details. The most frequent bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsilla pneumoniae and Rodentibacter heylii, and their detection rates were 10.76%, 3.16%, 2.53% and 0.63%, respectively. Serological assays demonstrated the highest prevalence for virus was Sendai virus, and the detection rate was 2.53%. In addition to the pathogens those must be excluded from SPF rodents, Entamoeba muris and Enterobacter spp. were also detected in inbred mice, and Klebsiella oxytoca was detected in immunodeficient mice, with the detection rates of 1.15%, 2.30% and 4.55%, respectively. Conclusion There are certain incidences of pathogen infections in laboratory rats and mice from vendors, and an efficient microbiological monitoring of laboratory animals should be implemented in animal facilities, in order to eliminate pathogen infections in laboratory animals, which is required for improving the accuracy of research results and protecting the occupational health of laboratory animal practitioners as well.

    Analysis of the Birthing Behaviour of Cynomolgus Macaques
    Xinyan BIAN, Yong LU, Yan WANG, Qiang SUN
    2023, 43(4):  355-362.  DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2023.086
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    Objective Observing and analyzing the delivery behaviour of cynomolgus macaques, to establish the criteria for determining the occurrence of delivery in cynomolgus macaques, and then combining with veterinary assistance in order to improve the live birth rate of cynomolgus macaques. Methods By backtracking and analyzing the surveillance videos of 112 perinatal cynomolgus macaques with a gestation period of 140 d or more from 2017 to 2021, we observed and recorded the main behavioural manifestations of the cynomolgus macaques during labour, including Valsalva's maneuver, touching and licking the birth canal, lying on their backs or stomachs, and rolling and tumbling of the body. On this basis, we established the weights of delivery-related behavioural indicators and exhaustively analysed the perinatal behavioural performances of 30 cynomolgus macaques for delivery determination. Results The perinatal behavioural validation results of the 30 cynomolgus macaques showed that the behavioural indicators of Valsalva's maneuver, touching and licking the birth canal, lying on the stomach or on the floor, body rolling and tumbling occurred with different frequencies, among which Valsalva's maneuver and lying on the stomach or on the back were the most important, with weight values of 35.5% and 27.2%, respectively. These two behaviours can be used to accurately determine the onset of parturition in cynomolgus macaques. The average live birth rate of the monkeys that were accurately determined to have given birth and were assisted by veterinarians reached 87.1%, which was significantly higher than that of the monkeys that had unassisted spontaneous deliveries, which was 63.5%, and there was a significant difference between these two rates (P<0.05). Conclusion The combination of accurate birth determination and veterinary assisted delivery can significantly increase the live birth rate of experimental cynomolgus macaques.

    Creation and Analysis of Related Genetic Characteristics of BALB/cA.Cg.SHJH hr Mice
    Xiaoqian TAN, Hao YANG, Huiqing TANG, Wei QU, Liang LI, Zhen QIAN, Jianzhong GU, Ping XU, Junhua XIAO
    2023, 43(4):  363-370.  DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2023.055
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    Objective To introduce the Hr gene of spontaneously mutated SHJH hr mice into BALB/cAShjh inbred mice with clear genetic background,and provide a basis for study on the molecular mechanism of Hr gene mutation-induced abnormal phenotype and the application of this model. Methods Using a backcross-intercross breeding method guided by phenotypic monitoring, mutant genes from SHJH hr mice bred by spontaneous mutation were introduced into inbred BALB/cAShjh mice by homozygous mutation introgression, and the mice were bred into BALB/cA.Cg.SHJH hr (abbreviated as C.Cg.SHJH hr ) mice after 10 generations. The genotypes of 90 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection sites were analyzed in C.Cg.SHJH hr mice by multiplex PCR library construction followed by next generation sequencing. Then 14 biochemical locus marker genes were detected in C.Cg.SHJH hr mice according to the method of GB/T 14927.1-2008. Finally, whole genome exon sequencing was utilized to detect the mutated genes in this mouse. Results From May 2018 to March 2022, a total of 10 generations of backcross-intercross were conducted to complete the construction of the C.Cg.SHJH hr mouse line. Among the 90 SNPs loci detected, except for rs13484115 and rs13484116, all the other loci had the same genotype as the recipient mice BALB/cAShjh. The results of biochemical marker gene detection showed that all the 14 loci of the mouse were the same as those of the recipient mouse. Whole genome exon sequencing found that the mouse had 109 site mutations compared with the recipient mouse strain, including 71 synonymous mutations, 1 stopgain, 37 missense mutations, and 20 genes involved in protein sequence alterations (including the reported Hr gene). Conclusion C.Cg.SHJH hr mice were created. Through exon sequencing and genetic analysis, three Hr mutated genes and associated mutated genes that mainly cause phenotypic variations were identified, which provides a basis for expanding the application of C.Cg.SHJH hr mice in biomedical research.

    Establishment of Preeclampsia Model in Goat and Evaluation on Maternal Biological Characteristics
    Jin LU, Jian WANG, Lian ZHU, Guofeng YAN, Zhengwen MA, Yao LI, Jianjun DAI, Yinqiu ZHU, Jing ZHOU
    2023, 43(4):  371-380.  DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2023.036
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    Objective Establish an animal model of preeclampsia in goats, collect data on various physiological indicators and maternal biological characteristics of the disease model to compare with clinical feature of the disease in humans, provide reference for the prevention and treatment of preeclampsia in humans. Methods Twenty-three goats bred in Chongming district were divided into three groups: Control group, no surgical procedure was performed on animals of this group; sham group, ewes in this group underwent the sham operation on the 100±5th day of gestation, and only the uterine artery was exposed and dissociated; surgical group, a silver vascular clamp was clipped on one side of the uterine body artery of the ewe to narrow the inner diameter of the artery at the same gestation period (100±5) days. Heart rate and hindlimb blood pressure were continuously monitored in control and surgical ewes from 100 to 140 d of gestation, and blood flow data within the lateral branches of the uterine arteries of ewes in the sham group were collected using a hemodynamometer in combination with a hemodynamic probe and an animal physiological signal collector, as well as changes in blood flow within the uterine arteries in the lateral branches of the uterine arteries of the surgical group before and after placement of vascular clips in the surgical ewes. At the expected date of delivery, jugular vein blood was taken from ewes for routine blood test, creatinine, urea nitrogen, and blood ion analysis; urine was also collected from ewes in each group for analysis of urinary protein and urinary creatinine. All experimental groups were subjected to cesarean section on the 140±5th day of gestation in ewes, and then liver, kidney, uterus and placenta tissues were taken from ewes in each group and stained with HE for pathological observation. Results After 15 minutes of preeclampsia modeling surgery, blood flow volume remained stable in the vessel stenosis segment and the volume differential was relatively reduced in comparison to the control group and sham group (P<0.05,P<0.01). Compared with the control group, the ewes in the surgical group showed prenatal changes such as increased serum osmolality, decreased hemoglobin, increased blood glucose and urea nitrogen values, as well as increased levels of calcium, sodium, and chloride ions (all P<0.05) and proteinuria, with urinary creatinine and urinary protein-creatinine ratios were significantly higher than those in the control group and sham group (all P<0.05). The elastic lamina of the uterine body arteries on the operated side of the animals in the surgical group was thicker than that on the opposite side, but the structure was loose. The placenta on the operated side showed pathological changes such as cell interstitial swelling and inflammatory cell infiltration. The above physiological index characteristics were more consistent with the clinical features of human preeclampsia disease. Conclusion In this experiment, we successfully constructed a goat preeclampsia model and obtained data on relevant physiological indexes of this model, which further verified the correlation between preeclampsia disease and uterine artery lesions.

    Animal Models of Human Diseases
    Animal Models of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension and Their Application in Drug Research
    Jiahui YU, Qian GONG, Lenan ZHUANG
    2023, 43(4):  381-397.  DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2023.048
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    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a clinical syndrome characterized by pulmonary vascular remodeling causing increased vascular resistance, which will lead to right heart failure and even death if left untreated. The pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension has not yet been clarified, and clinical treatments have not been effective in improving prognosis or reducing mortality. To investigate the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension and to develop and evaluate more effective and safer drug treatments, establishing related animal disease models is very important. This paper outlines the pathological characteristics of pulmonary arterial hypertension and summarizes the various types of animal models of pulmonary arterial hypertension, as well as describes the progress of the application of these models in three therapeutic pathways and related drug research in the past five years, with a view to providing a reference for the selection of animal models of pulmonary arterial hypertension and research applications.

    Research Progress on Establishing and Evaluation of Acne Animal Models
    Rui ZHANG, Meiyu LÜ, Jianjun ZHANG, Jinlian LIU, Yan CHEN, Zhiqiang HUANG, Yao LIU, Lanhua ZHOU
    2023, 43(4):  398-405.  DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2023.021
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    According to understanding of the pathogenesis of acne, scholars have established animal models of acne inflammation, animal models of grafting human skin acne, and natural acne animal models. The acne inflammation model is mainly induced by bacterial infection, chemical drug application, and foreign matter injection. Natural acne animal models include animals that some are sensitivity to hormones and some have clinical symptoms of acne. It is necessary to select appropriate model animals and replicate model methods for the development of acne intervention products with different degrees and mechanisms. At present, there are only human evaluation standards of acne health functions in China, but no animal evaluation standards, which has affected the in-depth study of the pathogenesis of acne as well as the research and development progress of acne products. This article summarizes the conditions for the occurrence of acne, the characteristics of human skin, the bidirectional effect of Cutibacterium acnes on human skin, acne animal models, and commonly used observation and evaluation indicators, providing the reference for studying the pathogenesis of acne, promoting acne treatment and health care, and developing treatment products.

    Literature Analysis of the Preparation Elements of Animal Models of Skin Photoaging and the Data of Subjects
    Yasheng DENG, Jiang LIN, Chiling GAN, Guanfeng ZENG, Jiayin HUANG, Huifang DENG, Yingxian MA, Siyin HAN
    2023, 43(4):  406-414.  DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2023.026
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    Objective To analyze the modeling elements and subjects of the animal model of skin photoaging, and to provide a reference for the preparation and improvement of the model and a basis for the scientific evaluation of the subject. Methods By searching and collecting relevant literature on the preparation of animal models of skin photoaging from 2010 to 2022 in the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Database, and PubMed database, the model animal species, gender, modeling method, modeling cycle, radiation source and its distance from the modeling site, cumulative radiation volume, detection indicators, and subjects (drugs or treatments) recorded in the literature were collated and summarized, and a database was established for statistical analysis. Results 257 articles that met the inclusion criteria were selected. Among them, the most common animal model was SKH-1 hairless mice, followed by SD rats and KM mice; the gender of animals was mainly female, medium-wave ultraviolet B (UVB) was often used as the radiation source, the distance between the radiation source and the modelling site was mostly 30 cm, and the modelling period was usually 40-60 days. The cumulative dose of long-wave ultraviolet A (UVA) was between 100-150 J/cm2, and the cumulative dose of UVB was between 5-10 J/cm2. The tests used after model establishment were skin histopathological examination, skin tissue homogenization, fibre staining, immunoblotting, etc. Subjects included Chinese herbal medicines, Chinese herbal extracts, Chinese patent medicines, Chinese herbal compound medicines, chemical drugs, biological agents and other treatments, while the animal model of skin photoaging was also used for clinical efficacy studies of external Chinese medicine, physiotherapy and positive control drugs. Conclusion In skin photoaging animal experiments, female SKH-1 hairless mice are often used, and UVB is used as the radiation source. The modeling period is usually 40-60 days, and the minimum erythema dose (MED) is incremented week by week. The cumulative UVB irradiation dose ranges from 0 to 10 J/cm2, which has the advantages of high success rate, good reproducibility and high similarity with clinical disease.

    Analysis of Common Types and Construction Elements of Diabetic Mouse Models
    Xue WANG, Yonghe HU
    2023, 43(4):  415-421.  DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2023.031
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    Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by absolute or relative lack of insulin, which leads to hyperglycemia, and its high mobidity and complications have a great impact on the lives of patients. Animal models are widely used to study the pathogenesis and treatment of diabetes and its complications. Different types of diabetes, with different pathogenesis and pathognomonic features, have different treatment options. In animal experimental, in addition to considering the genetic factors and physiological characteristics of the animal (such as sex and age), it is also necessary to consider the experimental protocol and various response options, which have a great impact on the experimental data, the reproducibility and stability of the experimental results. Therefore, it is necessary to select suitable animal models for experiments in the study of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is characterized by absolute insulin deficiency, and existing mouse models of type 1 diabetes include chemically (STZ-induced) induced and spontaneous diabetes model (NOD mice), etc. Type 2 diabetes, characterized by insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance, is established in both obese and non-obese animal models, including diet-induced (high-fat diet induced), spontaneous diabetes (including monogenic and polygenic obese mice) models, and genetically modified mouse models. In this review, we discussed the common types of diabetic mouse models and analyzed the elements of their construction, the key factors that should be considered in the selection of diabetic mouse models, and explore the impact of these factors on the research of diabetes.

    Evaluation and Analysis of Modeling Methods for Animal Models with Diminished Ovarian Reserve
    Hui HUANG, Yasheng DENG, Tianwei LIANG, Yiqing ZHENG, Yanping FAN, Na RONG, Jiang LIN
    2023, 43(4):  422-428.  DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2023.032
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    Objective To analysis the modeling characteristics of diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) animal models, and provide the reference for the standardization of DOR animal models. Methods The research articles on DOR animal models were retrieved. Microsoft Excel 2010 software was used to summarize the experimental animal species, modeling methods, modeling cycles, high-frequency detection indexes and types of positive drugs documented in the literature, and the data results were evaluated and analyzed by NoteExpress software. Results A total of 93 research articles on DOR that met the criteria were enrolled. And it was found that, SD rat was the most frequently used animal type (68 times, 73.12%), followed by C57BL/6 mouse (13 times, 13.98%), while the tripterygium wilfordii treatment was the most frequently used modeling method (38 times, 40.86%), followed by the cyclophosphamide treatment (28 times, 30.11%) for DOR animal models. The high frequency detection indicators were vaginal exfoliation cytology detection (93 times, 23.97%) and HE staining to observe histopathological changes (72 times, 18.56%). Among these 64 research articles containing positive control drugs, the most frequently used western drug was estrogen (50 times,62.50%) and Chinese Traditional medicine was Kuntai capsules (2 times, 2.50%). Conclusions SD rats are mostly used to induce modeling in animal experiments on DOR through tripterygium wilfordii and cyclophosphamide, which can effectively improve the experimental efficiency. It is recommended to integrate the results of ovarian histopathology and serum biochemical indexes for model assessment.

    A Visual Analysis on Animal Model of Sarcopenia Based on VOSviewer
    Lei XIANG, Jinzhu JING, Zhen LIANG, Guoqiang YAN, Wenfeng GUO, Meng ZHANG, Wei ZHANG, Yajun LIU
    2023, 43(4):  429-439.  DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2023.015
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    Objective Analyze the current situation, hotspots and development trends of sarcopenia animal model to provide research direction and basic information for sarcopenia animal model research. Methods English literature of research on animal models of sarcopenia was retrieved from the Web of Science core data (WOS) set from 1900-01-01 to 2022-12-31. Chinese literature related to animal models of sarcopenia was retrieved from CNKI database between 1915 and 2022. The bibliometric analysis software VOSviewer was used to explore the countries, orgonizations, authors, hotspots and frontier directions in these studies. Results A total of 2 819 articles on animal models of sarcopenia were retrieved from WOS core database. The first paper was published in 1995. The United States has the largest number of animal model studies of sarcopenia with 1 105 articles. The institution with the most published articles is the University of Florida in the United States, with 69 articles. The University of Hong Kong has the highest number of publications in China, with 20 articles. American author Van Remmen H, with 50 publications, is the author of the most articles. The journal with the largest number of articles published on animal models of sarcopenia is the American journal called FASEB Journal, with 196 articles. In total, 423 articles on animal models of sarcopenia were retrieved from the CNKI database. Author LI Zhuyi has published 19 articles, and is the author of the most articles in China. The keyword co-occurrence clustering analysis of WOS literature search found that the research focus on animal model of sarcopenia can be summarized as the correlation between sarcopenia and metabolism, cytology and regenerative medicine of sarcopenia animal models, the study of sarcopenia animal models in bone, muscle, nerve and exercise therapy. The retrieval results of CNKI database revealed that the most extensive research was about on the model of denervated sarcopenia, and researches on the effects of Chinese medicine on sarcopenia were also widely reported. Through reading the full articles or abstracts of the literature, the animal models of sacopenia mainly include natural aging model, genetic modification model, high-fat diet induction model, disuse model, hormone induction model and complex sarcopenia models of other diseases. Conclusion In recent years, the study on animal model of sarcopenia has become a hotspot at home and abroad.The bibliometric analysis provides a basis for the research of animal models of sarcopenia in terms of research direction, hotspots, model animal selection, animal model making, and domestic and international communication and cooperation.

    Case Report
    Diagnosis of Trichoepithelioma in a Tree Shrew and Observation of Cell Biological Characteristics
    Shanshan ZHAI, Liang LIANG, Yingying CAO, Zhuxin LI, Qing WANG, Junyu TAO, Chenxia YUN, Jing LENG, Haibo TANG
    2023, 43(4):  440-445.  DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2022.173
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    Objective To observe the primary tumor of tree shrews and to provide a basis for studying the pathogenesis and prevention of trichoepithelioma. Methods A tumor was discovered in the chest and abdomen of a tree shrew during natural cultivation. The tree shrew was anesthetized, and the tumor was surgically removed. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and immunohistochemical staining were performed on the tumor tissue after paraffin section, and the tumor cells were isolated and cultured by passage. The isolated tumor cells were subcutaneously injected into healthy tree shrews and nude mice. The tumorigenesis of tumor cells in vivo was observed once a day, with nude mice continuously observed for 2 months and tree shrews observed for more than 6 months. Results HE staining showed that the basal cells in the dermis were arranged as a whole, like a string of petals, forming nests and stripe-like structures with clear boundaries. The observation results after magnification revealed that the tumor cells were arranged in a pallisade-like and basal pattern, with deep nuclear staining and minimal cytoplasmic. Immunohistochemical staining showed the high expression of CK protein and low proportion expression of ki-67 protein in tumor cells, as well as the high expression of vimentin and low expressions of Bcl2 and CD10 in tumor cell mesenchyme. The isolated tumor cells grew well in DMEM medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum and could be cultured by passage, but no tumor formation was observed in healthy tree shrews and nude mice inoculated with tumor cells. Conclusion Combined with the location of the tumor, overall morphology, HE staining, and immunohistochemical results, the thoracoabdominal mass of the tree shrew was diagnosed as a trichoepithelioma.

    Guidelines for Comparative Medical Research and Reporting
    Explanation and Elaboration for the ARRIVE Guidelines 2.0—Reporting Animal Research and In Vivo Experiments (Ⅲ)
    Xiaoyu LIU, Xuancheng LU, Xiaomeng SHI, Yuzhou ZHANG, Chao LÜ, Guoyuan CHEN, Xiao LU, Yu BAI, Jing GAO, Yao LI, Yonggang LIU, Yufeng TAO, Wanyong PANG
    2023, 43(4):  446-456.  DOI: 10.12300/j.issn.1674-5817.2023.039
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    Improving the reproducibility of biomedical research results is a major challenge.Researchers reporting their research process transparently and accurately can help readers evaluate the reliability of the research results and further explore the experiment by repeating it or building upon its findings. The ARRIVE 2.0 guidelines, released in 2019 by the UK National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs), provide a checklist applicable to any in vivo animal research report. These guidelines aim to improve the standardization of experimental design, implementation, and reporting, as well as the reliability, repeatability, and clinical translatability of animal experimental results. The use of ARRIVE 2.0 guidelines not only enriches the details of animal experimental research reports, ensuring that information on animal experimental results is fully evaluated and utilized, but also enables readers to understand the content expressed by the author accurately and clearly, promoting the transparency and integrity of the fundamental research review process. At present, the ARRIVE 2.0 guidelines have been widely adopted by international biomedical journals. This article is a Chinese translation based on the best practices of international journals following the ARRIVE 2.0 guidelines in international journals, specifically for the complete interpretation of the ARRIVE 2.0 guidelines published in the PLoS Biology journal in 2020 (original text can be found at https://arriveguidelines.org). The third part of the article includes the items 8-10 of ARRIVE 2.0 Essential 10, which covers "experimental animals" "experimental procedures" and "results". Its aim is to promote the full understanding and use of the ARRIVE 2.0 guidelines by domestic researchers, enhance the standardization of experimental animal research and reporting, and promote the high-quality development of experimental animal technology and comparative medicine research in China.